Animals And Plants (F-G)

Faeces is the term applied to
egested food.

Falcon is a name given for several
species of medium sized birds of prey distinguished from hawks by their longer pointed wings, which give them greater speed in flight.

The fallow-deer is a medium-sized
species of deer, standing about 1 meter tall and distinguished by the end of the antler being palmated (flattened and expanded). It is found wild in Asia Minor, but was introduced into Britain in the early part of the 15th century. Two varieties are found in Britain, one which is fawn coloured with white spots and the other dark brown.

Fasciola is a member of the order

Felis manul
see "
Pallas cat"

The fennec is a small nocturnal
desert fox found in north Africa and Arabia. It is nocturnal, and lives in burrows, and feeds on jerboas, lizards, small birds and the like.

Fennel is a
perennial plant of the family Umbelliferae. It has an erect stem 80 - 100cm high, numerous leaves deeply divided into soft hair-like segments and large terminal umbels of yellow flowers. The plant is aromatic, and the leaves are used in cooking.

Fer de Lance
The Fer de
Lance (Rat-tailed Snake) is one of the species of pit vipers found in the West Indies and tropical America. It grows to about 2 meters in length, has a deadly bite, and is variously coloured but usually reddish-yellow with irregular dark bands and spots.

The Ferret is the
albino variety of a domesticated polecat used for driving rabbits from their burrows.

Fescue is a
genus of grasses having numerous spikelets, each of several flowers, in a compact or spreading panicle.

Feverfew is a
plant of the family Compositae. It bears numerous small heads of flowers on an erect stem, with the lower flowers borne on longer stalks so that the whole inflorescence reaches the same level. The flowers have white ray florets. The leaves are stalked, repeatedly cut, curled and delicate green.

Fiddler Crab
The Fiddler
Crab (Uca) is a genus of crustacean of the order Decapoda, family Ocypodidae.It gets its name from the male's distinctive larger claw which makes him look as though he is carrying a fiddle and bow. Fiddler Crabs are solitary, shore-living animals which inhabit burrows around the coast of Central and South America, Africa, the Middle East and Australasia.

Figs are
plants of the genus Ficus, woody trees and shrubs from the Mediterranean and Asia Minor. The common edible fig is the fruit of Ficus carica, a small tree with large, rough, leathery leaves lobed like a hand, rough green branches and alsmost sessile fruits of peculiar internal structure, consisting of a large, much curved receptable on which are borne numerous unisexual flowers interspersed with hairs.

Fig-wort (Scrophularia) is a
genus of flowering plants of the Order Sccrophulariaceae.

Filaria is a
phylum nematoda.

The File-fish (Trigger-fish) are bony
fishes found mostly in tropical and warm seas, distinguished by their hard mail-like scales, powerful jaws, and teeth adapted for biting through the shells of molluscs and stripping off pieces of coral to get at the soft parts for food. They are also called trigger-fish from the way the first spine of the dorsal fin snaps back when elevated.

The finch is a popular name of the

Firefly is a popular name for winged
insects possessing luminosity.

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Fish-hawk is an
American name for the Osprey.

The fish-louse are several
crustaceans of the order Ichthyophthira which are parasitic on fish.

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Fissurellidae is a family of gasteropodous
molluscs resembling the limpets in appearance and habits, but differing in structure. They are generally too large for their shell, and so it appears that the shell is rudimentary.

Fistularia is a
genus of acanthopterygious fish characterized by the elongation of the facial bones into a long fistula or tube at the extremity of which the mouth opens.

Fistulina is a
genus of Fungi, allied to Boletus, found on old oak, walnut, ash, beech and horse chestnut trees. It is eaten in Europe grilled and is said to taste like broiled meat.

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The flamingo is a
bird of the genus Phoenicopterus allied to the ducks. The flamingo has long legs and stands about 180 cm tall. The beak is naked, lamellate at the edges and bent. Flamingos are generally pink or scarlet in colour and live in southern Europe and northern Africa around sea coasts and salt marshes.

Flatworm is a common name for
phylum platyhelminthes.

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Flax is a popular name of
plants of the genus Linum, natural order Linaceae of which there are roughly 100 species. They are herbs or small shrubs with narrow leaves and yellow, blue or white flowers arranged in variously formed cymes.

The flea is several
insects constituting the order Aphaniptera. They are small with two eyes, six feet and piercing stilets and a suctorial proboscis which is used to feed on the blood of animals. They can leap amazing distances.

A flounder is one of the flat-fishes, family Pleuronectidae,
genus Pleuronectes. The flounder is found in the sea and near the mouths of large rivers around the British coast.

Fluke is a parasitic
flatworm that causes rot and dropsy of the liver.

Flustra is an

The fly-catcher is several
species of insectivorous birds of the genus Muscicapa with a bill flattened at the base, almost triangular, notched at the upper mandible and beset with bristles. They perch on branches and wait motionless for passing insects which they dart at and catch with a snap of the bill.

The flycatcher is a small, dull-coloured, songless
bird related to the shrike family. It is a summer visitor to Britain, and takes its name from the skilful way it catches small flies on the wing.

Flying Fish
fish is a name for several species of bony fishes in which the pectoral fins are lengthened and wing-like and serve to sustain the fish in its short flights through the air.

Flying Gurnard
The Flying
Gurnard (Trigla volitans) is a Mediterranean fish of the Gurnard genus.

Flying Lemur
The flying
lemur is a mammal not related to the lemurs, but more nearly akin to the Insectivores, differing however, sufficiently to be placed in a distinct order, the Dermoptera. Flying lemurs are found from the Malay Peninsular to the Philipine Islands, are represented by several species, all arboreal in habit and feeding on leaves and fruit.

The flying-fox or fox-bat is a fruit-eating
bat of the family Pteropidae including some of the largest of the bats, one species reaching 140 cm in length across the wings! Flying-foxes are found in Australia, Asia and Africa.

The flying-lemur is an
insectivorous mammal native to India. They have a membrane which extends as a broad expansion from the nape of the neck to the tail which they use to glide when leaping from tree to tree.

The flying-squrrel is a
genus of rodent animals of the squirrel family. The skin of the flank, extending between the fore and hind legs allows them to glide and make great leaps. Flying-squrrels are found in Europe, Asia and North America.

Fool's Parsley
Parsley is a slender plant of the family Umbelliferae. It grows to 30 cm tall with dark green, doubly pinnate leaves, and terminal compound umbels of white flowers.

Foraminifera is an order of
animals of low type belonging to the class Rhizopoda, sub-order Protozoa, furnished with a shell or test, simple or complex, usually perforated by pores called foramina from which the animals get their name.

Forest Fly
forest fly is a fly so called from its abundance in the New Forest. It is an external parasite on horses and cattle, is flat in form, leathery in consistency, and has legs specially adapted for clinging to the hair of its host. Although possessing wings, it rarely uses them. It is a pupiparous fly, giving birth to a single larva which quickly turns into a pupa.

The forest-fly is a two-winged fly parasitic on
birds and quadrupeds.

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Forget-me-not is a common British
plant of the natural order Boraginaceae found growing in damp or wet places. It is a pretty flower considered as the emblem of friendship throughout Europe.

The fossa is a large
carnivorous mammal found in Madagascar. It is about the size of an otter, but is related to the civet and mongoose. It is brown in colour, has a long tail, short legs, teeth like a cat's and lives mainly in trees feeding on birds and small mammals.

The term fowl was once used as a synonym for
bird, but since around 1900 the term fowl has come to refer to birds of the genus Gallus. They resemble the pheasants, but the crown of the head is generally naked and furnished with a fleshy comb, the base of the lower mandibles also bears fleshy lobes (wattles).

The fox is an
animal of the genus Vulpes closely allied to the dog, with a straight bushy tail, elongated pupils and erect ears. Foxes are intelligent, adaptable and omnivorous, consuming small animals, eggs, honey and refuse.

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Foxglove (
Digitalis purpurea) is a common British flower of the natural order Scrophulariaceae. It grows on banks and pastures. The flowers are campanulate and resemble the fingers of a glove, hence the name. Foxglove posesses diuretic, narcotic and sedative qualities which are used in medicine. It is also deadly in sufficient quantity.

The Foxhound is a
breed of dog bred for chasing foxes. The foxhound is smaller than the staghound, its average height being about 53 cm. Foxhounds were bred by crossing the old English bloodhound with the greyhound to blend speed with stamina and scent.

Foxtail-grass is a
grass of the genus Alopecurus so called because of the close cylindrical panicle in which the spikelets of flowers are arranged which look rather like a fox's tail.

The francolin is a
genus of birds belonging to the same family as the partridge which they resemble except for one or more strong and sharp horny spurs on the tarsi.

Frasera is a
genus of plants of the natural order Gentianaceae containing seven species of erect perennial herbs native to North America.

Fratercula is a
genus of web-footed birds which contains the puffin.

Fraxinella is a
species of dittany. It is an ornamental herbaceous annual plant cultivated for its fragrant leaves and rose-coloured flowers.

Fraxinus is a
genus of deciduous trees of the order Oleaceae which includes the ash.

French Beans
French Beans is a twining annual plant with alternate leaves on footstalks composed of three oval pubescent folioles. The seeds are shaped rather like a kidney, and from this the plant gets its alternative name, the Kidney Bean.

French Oak
The French Oak is a
tree of the genus Catalpa. It contains a lot of tannin in its bark.

The frigate-bird is a tropical, web-footed
bird of the family Pelecanidae. The male bird reaches 1 meter in length, including the tail, but the body is comparatively small. The bill is longer than the head, hooked at the end and sharp. The wings are very large, and the bird has a wing span of over 2 meters.

Fringillidae is a large family of conirostral
birds comprising the finches.

Fringillidea is the
Finch family of birds. They are a large family of small seed-eating birds found in all parts of the world. Fringillidea belong to the order Insessores, section Conirostres. They are distinguished by having a sharply-pointed, conical, and in most cases strongly-formed, bill suitable for crushing seeds and other hard objects.

Fritillary is a
genus of plants of the order Liliaceae, native to northern temperate regions.

The frog is an
anura with four legs, four toes on the fore feet and five on the hind. The feet are more-or-less webbed. The body is naked and has no ribs and no tail. The tongue is fleshy and attached in front to the jaw but is free behind so that it can be protruded.

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The froth-fly is an
insect of the family Cercopidae, the larvae of which is found in a frothy exudation on plants (Cuckoo-spit).

Fruit-pigeons are pigeons of the
genus Carpophagus. They have brilliant plumage and are found in India and Australia. They are so named because they eat nothing but fruit.

Fucaceae is a natural order of dark-coloured algae consisting of olive-coloured inarticulate seaweeds distinguished from other algae by their reproductive organs which consist of archegonia and antheridia, contained in common
chambers, united in club-shaped receptacles at the ends of the fronds.

The fuchsia is a
plant of the order Onagraceae. It has erect, much-branched stems, smooth, rather thick pointed leaves, and drooping heavy flowers borne singly in the axils of leaves towards the end of the branches. The flowers have coloured, fleshy calyx and tubular corolla, usually of different colours or shades of the same colour, and long deep-purple filaments bearing cross-set anthers.

Fucus is a
genus of seaweeds of the family Fucaceae comprising several common seaweeds with a flat or compressed forked frond, sometimes containing air vessels.

The fulmar is a sea
bird which lives on the sub-arctic shores of the Atlantic and Pacific oceans.

Fumariaceae is a small natural order of exogenous
plants closely allied to Papaveraceae. The species are slender-stemmed, herbaceous plants, generally erect, though some climb by means of their twisting leaf-stalks.

Funaria is a
genus of mosses.

Fungi is a large natural order of cryptogamous
plants, Fungi agree with algae and lichens in their cellular structure, which is, with few exceptions, devoid of anything resembling vascular tissue; but differing from them in deriving their nutrition from the body on which the grow, not from the medium by which they are surrounded.

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Fusus is a
genus of gasteropodous molluscs nearly allied to Murex with a spindle-shaped univalve shell.

Gadidae is a family of malacopterous
fish including the cod, ling and haddock.

The gadwall (Anas strepera) is a
species of duck. It is common in North America, and rare in Britain. It is not so large as a mallard and has long pointed wings and a vigorous and rapid flight.

The galbulinae are a family of tropical
American fissirostal birds allied to the trogons and kingfishers.

Galeidae is the
tope family of small sharks.

The galemys are a
genus of mammals allied to the shrews. They live in burrows at the sides of streams and feed on insects.

Galeopsis is a
genus of plants of the natural order Labiatae characterized by the equally five-toothed calyx. They are herbaceous plants with square stems usually clothed with sharp bristly hairs, nettle-like leaves on long stalks, and red, white or yellow labiate flowers.

Galeorhinus galeus
see "

Gall-fly is a name for several hymenopterous
insects of the family Cynipidae, which form galls, each species prefering a different plant. The gall is due to an iritating fluid which the insect deposits on the plant along with its egg.

The galliwasp is a
species of lizard about 30cm long and stout and plump. It is generally brown in colour and is native to the West Indies and was particularly common in Jamaica during the 19th century.

Galls (gall-nuts) are a vegetable excrescence produced by the
deposit of the egg of an insect in the bark or leaves of a plant.

A gamete is one of the two cells which fuse together to commence

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The gannet (solan
goose) is a British sea bird of the genus Sula, family Pelecanidae. It is about 1 meter long and the plummage is dirty white or grey. The bill is straight, and about 15 cm long.

The ganoids are an order of
fish characterized by angular, rhombic, polygonal or circular scales composed of horny or bony plates covered with a thick plate of a glossy enamel like substance.

The gaper-shell is a lamellibranchiate
mollusc common on British coasts. It has a rectangular shell and burrows in sand and mud.

The gar-fish (sea-pike, gar-pike, sea-needle) is a long and
slender sea fish of the genus Belone, about 90cm long. The head projects forward into a very long sharp snout. The sides and belly are of a bright silvery colour and the back is green.

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Garcinia is a
genus of plants of the natural order Guttiferae.

The garden-warbler is a migratory song-bird which visits
Britain from the end of April to September. It is about 15cm long, the head and upper surfaces are greenish brown and the underside is brownish white.

Gardenia is a
genus of trees and shrubs of the natural order Cinchonaceae. They are native to trpoical Asia and Africa and have pretty white or yellowish flowers and a powerful fragance.

The garganey is a small British

Garlic is a
perennial plant of the family Liliaceae with an edible bulb divided into segments known as cloves.

Garrot is a popular name of ducks of the
genus Clangula. They are oceanic ducks with a bill shorter than the head, and are widely distributed over the temperate regions of Europe and America.

Garrulus is a
genus of insessorial birds of the crow family.

The gasteropods are a class of
mollusc, consisting of animals inhabiting a univalve shell, although some of the group are wholly devoid of a shell. Generally the shell is cone-shaped and spiral. The distinguishing characteristic is the foot, which is broad, muscular and disc-like and attached to the ventral surface.

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Gasterosteus is a
genus of fish which comprises the sticklebacks.

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The gaur (or gour, seladang) is one of the larget of the
ox tribe found in the mountain jungles of India and Malaya. It is renowned for its shoulder hide, which even when dried is often more than 5cm thick, and was used to make shields.

The gavial (Gavialis gangeticus) is the Indian
crocodile. It is characterized by narrow, almost cylindrical jaws which form a very long elongated muzzle. It has 120 teeth, of equal length, and the feet are webbed.

The Gaviiformes are an order of
birds. These are the divers or loons. They are water birds with legs set very far back and webbed feet. The bill is long and pointed for catching fish.

The gayal (Mithan) is a
species of ox related to the gaur and domesticated in north-east India.

The gazelle (Gazella
dorcas) are various species of small, fast running antelope (the Gazellinae).

Gazelle hound
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The gean (Prunus Avium) is a wild
cherry tree found in Britain. It has fruit which are red when unripe, and a deep purple or black when ripe. The timber can be used for making furniture.

Gebang Palm
The gebang
palm (Corypha gebanga) is a fan-leaved palm of south east Asia. Sago is extracted from its pith and its leaves are used for thatch, hats, baskets and bags. The root is used in medicine and the fibres of the leaf stalks are used for making ropes, nets and cloth.

The Gecko are a family of nocturnal
lizards (Gekotidae) characterized by the general flatness of their form, especially of the head, which is rather triangular. The body is covered on the upper part with numerous round prominences or warts and the feet are rather short with toes nearly equal in length and furnished with flattened suction pads which enable the gecko to run up perpendicular walls.

The gelada (
Theropithecus) is a dark, shaggy-maned baboon found in Ethiopia of the family Cercopithedcidae.

The gelsemium is a woody
vine found in Asia and southern America.

A gemma is a small cellular body that separates from the mother-plant and starts a new one. It is common in moss and liverwort.

The gemsbok (
Oryx gazella) is a large powerful member of the antelope family inhabiting the plains of South Africa.

Genes are hereditary information material arranged in a single row along the length of each

The genet is a digitigrade
carnivorous mammal of the family Viverridae. It is about the size of a small cat, but longer. Genets were used in Constantinople (Istanbul) to catch rats. The genet is common around the mediterranean.

Genipap is the
fruit of the Genipa americana tree, of the natural order Rubiaceae. It is about the size of an orange and has a pleasant vinous flavour.

Genista is a
genus of leguminous plants consisting of about 100 species.

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Gentiana is a
genus of bitter herbaceous plants which have opposite, often strongly ribbed leaves, and blue, yellow or red, often showy flowers. The calyx consists of four or five valvate segments, and the corolla is four or five parted. The fruit is a two-valved, one celled, many-seeded capsule.

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Geotrupidae are a family of burrowing lamellicorn beetles.

Geraniaceae is a natural order of exogenous
plants the distinguishing character of which is to have a fruit composed of five capsules or cases, connected with as many flat styles, consolidated around a long conical beak.

The Geranium (
Crane's Bill) is an herbaceous plant of the order Geraniaceae, akin to the Wood Sorrel and Balsam. It takes its alternative name of Cranes Bill from the fancied resemblance of the fruit to the beak of a crane.

The germander are
plants of the genus Teucrium.

Gervas (Stachytarpheta jamaicensis) is a small shrub of the natural order Verbenaceae. It is native to the West Indies and warm parts of
America. Its leaves were used to make Brazilian tea and to adulterate tea in Britain in the 19th century.

Geum is a
genus of hardy herbaceous perennials, belonging to the natural order Rosaceae, chiefly natives of the northern hemisphere.

The ghost-moth is a nocturnal lepidopterous
insect (Hepialus humuli), so called from the male being of a white colour, and from its habit of hovering with a pendulum-like motion in the twilight over one spot where the female is concealed.

A gibbon is a type of small
ape of the genus Hylobates, particularly the species Hylobates lar which inhabits the islands of the Indian Archipelago. It is noticeable by the extraordinary length of its arms and its slender form.

The gibel (Cyprinus gibelio) is a
fish of the carp genus. It is also called the Prussian Carp. The gibel rarely weighs more than 250 gms.

Gills are very efficient organs of respiration found in fish and the early development stages of amphibians. They are highly vascular and are bathed in oxygen containing water from which the oxygen is extracted.

The gilthead (Chrysophrys aurata) is an acanthopterygious
fish of the Sparidae or sea-bream family common in the Mediterranean. It has strong grinding teeth which it uses to crush the shells of the molluscs on which it feeds. It has a yellow band which extends from eye to eye, and typically weighs 9kg.

Ginger is a
perennial plant of the order Zingiberaceae found in south east Asia, the West Indies, South America and Africa of which Jamaican ginger is the most prized.

The gingko are coniferous
trees of the genus Salisburia belonging to the yew family and which are native to China and Japan.

The ginkgo is a
tree related to the conifers and native to China and Japan.

Ginseng (Panax schinseng) is a
plant of Northern Asia of the order Araliaceae. It is herbaceous and grows to about 30cm tall. Its root has long been regarded by the Chinese as a source of sexual potency.

The giraffe is the tallest
mammal, found only in Africa south of the sahara.

Girdle of Venus
The Girdle of
Venus is an animal of the Ctenophora found in the Mediterranean.

Gladiolus are a
genus of plants of the iris order, having a bulbous root with a reticulated covering. They are natives of Europe and north Africa, but especially South Africa. The leaves are ensiform and the flowers brilliantly coloured.

Glass Snake
Glass Snake is a lizard of the genus Ophiosaurus which resembles a snake in form and reaches a length of 1 meter. The joints of the tail are not connected by caudal muscles and so the tail is very brittle and joints break off when the animal is even slightly irritated.

Glasswort are
plants of the genus Salicornia, natural order Chenopodiaceae. They are succulent marine herbs growing abundantly on the coasts of southern Europe and north Africa. When burnt their ashes yield soda which was once used in making glass, hence the name glasswort.

Gleditschia is a
genus of plants of the order Leguminosae to which the honey-locust belongs.

Globe-fish is a popular name applied to several
fish of the genera Diodon and Tetraodon of the order Plectognathi, on account of their ability to assume a globular form by swallowing air or water which inflates a ventral sac and inflates the whole animal like a balloon.

The globe-flower (Trollius europaeus) is a
European plant of the natural order Ranunculaceae. It is found in mountainous regions and has five-lobed, deaply serrated leaves and round pale-yellow blossoms the sepals of which are large and conspicuous while the petals are very small.

Globigerina is one of the
Foraminifera, a microscopic animal having a many-celled shell found fossilised in the chalk and tertiary formations and alive in the seas where shells of the abundant dead animals form vast calcareous deposits of mud known as globigerina ooze.

Gloriosa is a
genus of tuberous-rooted climbing herbs of the natural order Liliaceae, so named from their splendid flowers. They have branched stems and flowers mostly of a pretty red and yellow colour, with six long lanceolate undulated segments, which are entirely reflexed.

The glow-worm is an
insect of the genus Lampyris, natural order Coleoptera. The name glow-worm is only really applicable to the female, which is without wings, resembling a caterpillar, and emits a shining green light from the extremity of the abdomen. The male is winged, and flies about in the evening when it is attracted by the light of the female.

Gloxinia is a
genus of plants of the natural order Gesneraceae, distinguished by the corolla apprroaching to bell-shaped, the upper lip shortest and two-lobed, the lower three-lobed, with the middle lobe largest, and also by the summit of the style being rounded and hollowed. The species are native to tropical America and were introduced into Britian in the 19th century.

The glutton (Gulo arcticus) (Wolverene,
Wolverine) is a carnivorous quadruped, about the size of a large badger, and intermediate between the bear family and the weasels. It inhabits northern Europe and America.

Glycyrrhiza is a
genus of leguminous plants.

Gmelina is a
genus of plants of the order Verbenaceae found in Asia. All the species form either shrubs or trees, some providing valuable timber.

Gnaphalium is a
genus of widely-spread composite plants which have their foliage usually covered with a white wooly down, and their flower-heads of the ecerlasting kind.

Gnat is a popular name for several
species of insects of the genus Culex.

Gnathostomata is a branch of the
sub-phylum craniata group of animals. The mouth is bounded by jaws which are formed from the mandibular visceral arch.

The gnu (wildebeeste) is an
antelope found in Africa. Both sexes have have horns projecting slightly outwards and downwards, then forming an abrupt upward bend. They have bristly black hair about the face and muzzle, a white stiff mane, and horse-like tail. They reach a length of about 270cm and a height at the shoulder of about 120cm.

The goat is a
ruminant mammal of the genus Capra, sub-family Caprinae. They are slightly smaller than a sheep, but stronger, more agile and less timid.

Goat Antelope
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Goat's-beard is a popular name of plants of the genus Tragopogon, order Compositae, which are herbaceous perennials, chiefly natives of Europe. The seeds have feathery appendages from which the plants get their name.

Goat's-rue (Galega officinalis) is a leguminous plant indigenous to southern Europe. It is used as forage and was once used as a cordial to treat fever and convulsions.

Goat's-thorn is the name given to two hard evergreen plants of the genus Astragalus.

The goat-moth (Cossus ligniperda) is a large British
moth. The larvae are about 7cm long and hollow out galleries in trees and form cocoons from the sawdust in which the chrysalids are formed. The larval condition lasts for three years. The fully-developed insect is ash-coloured, with numerous small black lines on the first pair of wings.

Goatsucker is a popular name of
birds of the genus Caprimulgus. They got the name from the incorrect assertion that the birds suck goats. The goatsuckers actually feed on nocturnal insects and beetles which are caught as the bird flies with its mouth open.

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Goby is the popular name of a family of acanthopterous
fish (Gobiidae) characterized as having two dorsal fins nearly united into one, the anterior fin having flexible rays, not spinous. The ventral fins are thoracic and united more or less by their bases. the body is scaly and the head unarmed. there are about 400 species of goby.

Godwinia is a
genus of plants of the natural order Araceae.

Godwit is a popular name for
birds of the genus Limosa or the family Scolopacidae.

Gold of Pleasure
Gold of Pleasure (Camelina sativa) is a cruciferous annual of the order Brassicaceae, with stem-clasping leaves and terminal racemes of yellow flowers which produce pear-shaped pods containing numerous small seeds.

Golden-beetle is a popular name for several tetramerous beetles of the
genus Chrysomela. There are some British species, but most are tropical. They are characterized by their brilliant colouring.

Golden-crested Regulus
see "
Golden-crested Wren"

Golden-crested Wren
The Golden-crested
Wren (Golden-crested Regulus, Kinglet, Regulus cristatus) is a beautiful bird belonging to the family Sylviadae, distinguished by an orange crest. It is the smallest of British birds, being only 8cm long, very agile and almost continually in motion. The upper part of the body is yellowish olive green and the under parts are pale reddish white. It lives mostly in tall trees, particularly the oak, yew, pine and fir.

Golden-rod (Solidago) is a
genus of plants of the natural order Compositae. They are chiefly natives of North America. Most of the species have erect, rod-like, scarcely branched stems, with alternate serrated leaves, and terminal spikes of small yellow flowers.

Golden-saxifrage is a popular name for

The Goldfinch (Fringilla carduelis) is a common British
bird of the Finch family. It is about 13cm long and the plumage is a mixture of black, scarlet, yellow and white colours.

The goldfish is a member of the
carp family found in east Asia.

The goliath-beetles are beetles of the
genus Goliathus which are native to Africa and South America and are so named on account of their remarkable large size which can reach 10cm. They are eaten in South America.

Gomuti Palm
The Gomuti
Palm (Saguerus saccharifer) is the sago-palm and yields a bristly fibre known as gomuti or ejoo which is manufactured into cordage, and used for thatching. The sweet juice of the palm is fermented into a toddy by natives. The Gomuti Palm is also one of the chief sago producing palms.

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The gonads are essential reproductive organs.

The goosander is a
duck found in Scotland.

The goose is a
bird of the genus Anser.

Goose Grass
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Gooseberry (Ribes grossularia) is a low branching shrub growing wild in
Siberia and northern Europe. It is part of the order Grossulariaceae. the branches are armed with numerous prickles and bear three to five lobed leaves and inconspicuous flowers. The fruit is a succulent berry which makes rather good eating.

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The gopher is a burrowing
rodent found in north and central America.

Gorgonia is a member of the order of

The gorilla is the largest anthropoid
ape, found in west Africa.

Gorse (furze, whin) is a
plant of the family leguminosae. It is a low shrubby plant, the stem generally 80cm to 1m high, much branched and most of the leaves converted into spines. The flowers are solitary and yellow.

The goshawk (Astur palumbarius) is a raptorial
bird of the genus Astur. It grows to around 60cm long, has deep brown plumage and was much used in falconry. It flies low and pursues its prey in a line after it.

Goura is a
genus of large pigeons native to Papua New Guinea comprising about six species known as crowned pigeons which are remarkable for their large size and open erect crest with which the head is adorned. They spend most of their time on the ground and nest in low branches.

Gourd (Cucurbita) is a
genus of plants of the natural order Cucurbitaceae.

The grain-moth is two
species of very small moth whose larvae eat grain in granaries. The moths have narrow, fringed wings of a satin lustre.

The graining is a
fish of the dace kind found chiefly in the Mediterranean and its tributaries and in some of the Swiss lakes. The nose is more rounded than that of the dace, the eye larger, and the dorsal fin commences half-way between the point of the nose and the end of the fleshy portion of the tail.

Grakle is a
genus of birds of the order Passeres and of the starling family. They are found in India and New Guinea.

Grallatores is an order of
birds. They are generally wading-birds and frequent the banks of streams and marshes. They have long legs and a long beak.

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The grampus are several
marine cetaceous mammals allied to the dolphins. Grampus are found in the Atlantic and North Sea. They grow to about 8 meters long, and are very thick in proportion to their length with a black back and white belly. On each shoulder is a white spot. Grampus are carnivorous and voracious and will attack even whales.

The grantia is a member of the
calcarea class.

The grapple-plant is a South African procumbent
plant of the natural order Pedaliacea. the seeds have many hooked thorns which cling to the mouths of grazing cattle causing considerable pain.

Grass (Graminaceae) is an extensive order of
endogenous plants comprising about 250 genera and 4500 species. The roots are fibrous; the stem is usually cylindrical and jointed varying length from a few centimeters to 30 meters in the case of the bamboo.

The Grass-tree (Xanthorrhoea) is a
genus of Australian plants pf the natural order Liliaceae. They have shrubby stems with tufts of long grass-like wiry foliage, from the centre of which arises the tall flower-stalks which sometimes reach a height of 5 meters and bear dense cylindrical spikes of blossom at their summit.

Grass-wrack (Sea-Grass, Zostera
marina) is a phanerogamous plant belonging to the Naiadeae, forming green beds at the bottom of the sea where it is shallow. The ash contains soda.

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The grasshopper are various leaping inscets of the order Orthoptera nearly akin to the locusts. They are characterized by long and
slender legs, the thighs of the hind legs are large and adapted for leaping; by large and delicate wings and by the wing covers extending far beyond the extremity of the abdomen. They are generally of a greenish colour.

Gratiola is a
genus of plants of the natural order Scrophulariaceae containing about twenty species of herbs, widely distributed through the extra-tropical regions of the world.

Grayling is a
genus of fish of the family Salmonidae. The common grayling is found in English streams and in Scotland. Grayling prefer rapid streams where the water is cool and clear, and the bottom sandy or pebbly. Grayling are yellowish-brown with a white under-belly.

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Green Gage
Green Gage is a variety of plum.

Green Turtle
Green Turtle is an amphibian of the order Reptilia, order Testudines. It is one of the largest of the seven species of sea turtle. Although once common in the worlds warmer seas, it is now threatened with extinction. Green Turtles have a thick, heavy and bony shell covered in plate-like scales and a salt gland near the eye through which it gets rid of excess salt water. The feet are modified into powerful flippers that propel it through water, and are used for walking on land.

Green-brier (
Smilax rotundifolia) is a thorny climbing shrub having a yellow-green stem and thick leaves with small bunches of flowers. It is very common in America.

Green-dragon (Arisoema Dracontium) is a North American
herbaceous plant of the arum family. It is also known as wake-robin.

The greenfinch is a
bird of the finch family common in Europe and north Africa.

The greenheart (Nectandra Rodioei) is a
tree of the natural order Lauraceae. It is native to Guiana where it is also called the bebeeru. The bark contains the alkaloid bebeerine.

The greenshank (Totanus glottis) is a
species of sand-piper often called the whistling snipe from the shrill note it utters when first disturbed. It breeds commonly in the Hebrides and sometimes in northern Scotland and is a visitor to the coasts and marshes of Britain.

Gregarina is a member of the
gregarinida order.

Gregarinida are an order of
sporozoa. They are parasites which live in invertebrates, and are found in the gut, colon and tissues.

Gregarinidae are a class of minute
animal organisms comprising the lowest forms of Protozoa found parasitic in various animals, especially the cockroach and earthworm. The Gregarinidae consist of an outer colourless transparent membrane, with only faint signs of a fibrillous structure inclosing a granular mass in which there is a nucleus surrounded by a clear space.

Grey buck
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Grey Gurnard
Grey Gurnard (Trigla gurnardus) is a common British fish of the Gurnard genus.

The greyhound is a variety of
dog distinguished by a greater length of muzzle than any other; very low forehead, short lips, thin and long legs, small muscles, contracted belly and semipendant ears. They are bred for racing, being the fastest running dogs.

A grilse is a young
salmon after it returns to the sea from the fesh water for the first time.

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Gromwell are
plants of the genus Lithospermum of the natural order Boraginaceae.

Grossulaceae is a tribe of
plants of the natural order Saxifragaceae.

Ground Dove
Dove is a name given to several species of pigeon and especially the Chamoepelia of warmer parts of America.

Ground Ivy
Ivy (Glechoma hederacea) is a common British plant of the order Labiatae, with a creeping stem and purple flowers. It was once used as a flavouring in ale.

Ground Squirrel
Squirrel is a a name for squirrels of the genus Tamias. They differ from other squirrels in posessing cheek-pouches and living in burrows.

Ground-hog is another name for the

Ground-nut is another name for

Ground-pine is a
herbaceous labiate plant.

Groundsel (Senecio vulgaris) is a
European plant of the natural order Compositae. The plant is emollient, has a slightly acid taste and is rejected by most animals except pigs and goats.

The grouse is a
fowl like bird common in north America and north Europe and comprising the family Tetraonidae whose distinguishing mark is a naked band, often of a red colour, in place of an eyebrow. They are wild, shy and almost untamable living in families in forests and barren regions and feeding on berries, buds and leaves.

The growler (Micropterus nigricans) is a fresh
water fish of North America also called the black-bass.

Growth is the idea of an
animal increasing in size, weight or complexity etc.

Grub is a term applied to the soft worm-like larvae of various

Grugru is the larva of the Calandra palmarum, or palm weevil found in the tropical parts of
America. It is about the size of a thumb and is often cooked and eaten.

The grunt (grunter, pig-fish, red-mouth) is an
American fish of the family Haemulonidae which emits a grunt when taken out of the water, hence it's name.

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Grus is a
genus of birds which includes the crane.

Gryllus is a
genus of orthopterous insects.

The grysbok (grisbok,
grey buck, Antilope melanotis) is a species of antelope found in southern Africa. It reaches a height of 1 meter in length and 50 cm in height at the shoulder. It is reddish-grey in colour and is hunted for food.

Guacharo (Steatornis Caripensis) is a
bird of the goat-sucker family. It is nocturnal and a native of South America. It is the size of a common fowl with a curved and toothed bill and long pointed wings. Guacharo feed upon fruit, becoming so fat that Indians kill them for their oil.

Guaiacum is a
genus of plants belonging to the natural order Zygophyllaceae native to the West Indies and the tropical parts of America. They are hardwood trees and the resin of some varieties is used in medicine.

The guan is a gallinaceous
bird of the family Cracidae, genus Penelope. The sides of the head and front of the throat are naked and wattled, the wattles being capable of inflation. The guans perch on trees descending in search of grain and fruits. They are native to Brazil and Guiana, and there was a suggestion in the 19th century of breeding them in Europe as poultry.

The guanaco is a wild member of the
camel family found in South America.

Guava is the popular name of the
genus Psidium, which are tropical trees of the natural order Myrtaceae. The fruit of the guava is high in vitamin C.

The gudgeon is a
freshwater fish found in Europe and north Asia. It belongs to the carp family (Cyprinidae) and has short dorsal and anal fins without spines. On each side of the mouth is a small barbel.

The guereza (guerza, Colobus guerza) is an Ethiopian
monkey with shirt, glossy black fur with long silky white fur on the flanks.

Guernsey Lily
Guernsey Lily (Nerine Sarniensis) is a beautiful plant with purple red flowers and native to South Africa. It is of the family Amaryllidaceae. It is called the Guernsey Lily because some of its bulbs were washed ashore in Guernsey from a ship wreck and took root.

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The guillemot is a web-footed
bird of the Alcidae family. The guillemot has a striaght, compressed and pointed bill covered with feathers as far as the nostrils. The wings are pointed and very short and the legs are short and placed far back. Guillemots eat fish and nest on sea cliffs.

Guinea Pepper
Guinea Pepper (Xylopia aromatica) is a loft tree of the custard apple family. Its fruit, consisting of dry carpels is used as pepper.

The Guinea-fowl (pintado) is a
genus of gallinaceous birds of the family Phasianidae (the pheasants). They are originally natives of Africa.

Guinea-grass is a very tall
species of grass native to Africa and of the same genus as the millet, it grows to between 2 and 3 meters high.

The Guinea-pig is a
rodent mammal of the family Cavidae (the Cavies). It is native to South America and rather stupid, but terribly cute and often kept in Europe as a children's pet. The South American Indians prefer to cook it roasted on a spit over an open fire and eat it.

Guinea-worm (
Filaria Medinensis) is a parasitic worm of the order Nematoda. It is white and about the thickness of string and varies in length from 15 cm to 1 meter.

Gull is the general name of a family of
birds distinguished by their straight bill, bending downwards towards the point, and marked below the under mandible by a triangular prominence, by their large wings, slender legs, palmated feet, and small hind toe. They swim well, but cannot dive.

Gum-cistus is a
plant cultivated in Portugal and yielding a gum with a balsamic odour.

Gum-tree is another name for

The gunnel (butterfish, Centronotus gunellus) is a
fish of the Blennies family. The common gunnel resembles an eel and is about 10 cm long, is brown in colour and has black spots on the base of the dorsal fin.

Gunnera is a
genus of plants of the bread-fruit order.

Gurnard or Gurnet is a popular name of acanthopterous
fish of the genus Trigla. The head is angular and wholly covered in bony plates. The body is elongated, nearly round and tapering. There are two dorsal fins, the pectoral fins are large and the teeth are small and numerous.

Guttiferae is a natural order of exogenous
trees and shrubs which generally secrete an acrid yellow resinous juice. They are found in hot and humid regions, chiefly South America.

The gymnoblastea is an order of
hydrozoa. They are marine colonial forms in which the coenosarc is enclosed within a perisac. The perisac is not extended to form hydrothecae.

Gynerium is a
genus of grass which includes Pampas Grass.

Gypaetus is a
genus of birds which includes the Bearded Vulture.

Gypsy-wort is a labiate
plant found in Britain in ditches and on river banks. It renders a dye, and gets its name from the rumour that Gypsies used it to darken their skin.

Gyrocotyle is a