Animals And Plants (H)

The hackberry is an
American tree of the nettle-tree family introduced into Britain in 1636.

Haddock is a
marine fish of the cod family found in the north atlantic.

Haematopus is a
genus of wading birds which includes the common oyster-catcher.

Haemosporidia is a suborder of
coccidiomorpha. They are parasites which live in warm-blooded animals and produce various types of malaria.a

Hag is the popular name of
fish of the genus Myxine. They are of worm-like form and have no eyes or scales. The mouth is formed for suction and is without lips and is furnished with barbels. The hag has horny teeth which it uses to eat into the interior of other fish.

Hairy Mou'ed Collie
see "
Bearded Collie"

Haliaetus is a
genus of birds which includes the British white-tailed sea-ragle and the American bald eagle.

Halibut is a large flatfish found in the north

The halichondria is an order of sponges of the
demospongia class.

The Halicoridae is a family of
Sirenia found in herds on the shores of the Indian Ocean.

Haliotis is a
genus of gateropodous molluscs commonly called ear-shells or sea-ears and found adhering to rocks on the sea-shore. They are remarkable for the pearly iridescence of their inner surface.

Halistemma is a member of the order of

The Halophytes are a class of
plants which inhabit salt marshes, and by combustion yield barilla.

Haltica is a
genus of beetle.

Hamamelidaceae is a small natural order of epiygynous exogenous
trees or shrubs, varying in height from 2 to 10 meters. These are the witch-hazels.

The hammer-oyster is a bivalve
shell fish. Malleus vulgaris, found in the Indian Ocean. It resembles the pearl-oyster when young, but becomes more hammer-like as it gets older by the lengthening of its ears.

The hammerhead is a
species of shark.

The hamster (Cricetus) is a
genus of rodent animals belonging to the Muridae (mice) family, and closely allied to the rats. They are distinguished by a short hairy tail and cheek pouches.

The hand-plant (Cheirostemon platanoides) is a Mexican
tree of the order Sterculiaceae. It grows to about 10 meters in height and has flowers, the stamen of which looks a bit like a human hand.

Hard-fern is the popular name of Lomaria spicant, a common
fern found throughout Britain growing on heaths and glens.

The hare (Lepus) is a
genus of rodent with long ears, long hind legs, a shirt tail, soft hair and a divided upper lip. The young hare is called a leveret and are born in litters of between 3 and 6 leverets upto 4 times a year.

Hare's Ear
Hare's Ear (Bupleurum) is a plant of the natural order Umbelliferae.

Harebell (Scotch bluebell, Campanula rotundifolia) is a
plant of the natural order Campanulaceae with a bell shaped blue, and sometimes white flower. The radical leaves are cordate or reniform, the stem-leaves partly ovate or lanceolate. It is a slender plant growing to about 12 cm tall.

The hareld (Harelda glacialis) is the long-tailed
duck, an oceanic duck with a short thick bill, a high forehead and two very long feathers in the tail of the male. It inhabits the northern seas and is often found around Orkney and Shetland.

Harlequin Duck
The Harlequin
Duck (Clangula histrionica) is a species of duck with white, grey and black plumage found in Arctic regions.

The harp-shell is a
genus of molluscs (Harpa) belonging to the gasteropoda and to the whelk family. The species are found around Mauritius. The shells are very attractive, but exposure to light causes their colours to fade.

The harpy-eagle is a large, powerful
bird of South America. It has a crooked bill, and strong sharp claws. The harpy-eagle feeds on birds, sloths, racoons, fawns, fish and tortoise eggs.

The Harrier is a
breed of dog intended for hare hunting. It is similar to the foxhound, but smaller.

Hart is the name given to a male

Hart's-tongue is a genus of highly ornamental fern with simple, undivided fronds.

The hartebeest (Alcelaphus) is a south
African antelope which measures about 1.5 meters high at the shoulder, has a long head, horns projecting outwards and backwards, black marks on the face and legs, a white mark on the rump and a bushy tail. They are generally found in small herds.

The harvest-bug (Leptus autumnalis) is a small larval
insect of the family Acaridae. It is bright red in colour and about the size of a grain of cayenne pepper. It attacks livestock and humans, burrowing under the skin and so causing red pustules.

The harvest-mouse (Musmessorius) is the smallest British
quadruped. It builds a nest suspended amongst stalks of wheat.

The harvest-spider (Phalangium longipes) is a British
spider with very long legs. It has a peculiar habit of throwing off one or more legs.

Haustellata is an extensive division of
insects in which the mouth is furnished with a haustellum or proboscis adapted for suction. It includes the butterflies and moths, and two winged flies.

The hawfinch is a
species of grossbeak. It is one of the largest of the finches. It resembles the Chaffinch in colour, but is distinguished by its enormous beak, larger size, and bill-hook formation of some of its wing feathers. It feeds on all kinds of berries and is found throughout Britain.

The Hawk-moth is one of the
sphinx moths, so called from its hovering motion which resembles that of a hawk.

Hawkweed (Hieracium) is a
genus of composite plants, sub-order Cichoraceae, consisting of numerous species with yellow flowers.

Hawthorn (Cratoegus Oxyacantha) is a small spiny
European tree, belonging to the sub-order Pomeae of the order Rosaceae, rising sometimes to the height of 6 meters. The leaves are alternate, obovate, 3 to 5 lobed. The flowers are white, sometimes with a reddish tinge, disposed in corymbs and smell rather nice.

The hazel is a
tree of the genus corylus, family corylaceae. The leaves are roundish-cordate, alternate and shortly petiolate. It produces nuts known as filberts.

The hazel-grouse is a
species of grouse inhabiting Europe and Asia. It is found in heathy tracts, woods and forests. It feeds on berries, buds, insects and worms.

The heart is a muscular organ used to maintain circulation of
blood through an animal.

Heather is a low growing
evergreen shrub that is common on sandy and acid soil.

Hedera is the
genus of plants to which ivy belongs.

Hedge-mustard (Sisymbrium officinale) is a cruciferous
plant once used as a remedy for catarrh.

see "

see "

The hedge-warbler (hedge-sparrow,
Accentor modularis) is a bird of the family Sylvidae, common in Britain and the temperate parts of Europe. It feeds on insects, worms and seeds. It grows to about 14 cm long and has reddish-brown plumage streaked with dark-brown.

The hedgehog is a small prickly
carnivorous mammal of the order Insectivora, family Erinaceidae. They are solitary, nocturnal animals feeding on caterpillars, beetles, slugs, worms, young mice, eggs and fruit. Hedgehogs grow to about 30 cm long and can live up to 6 years.

Helamys is a
genus of rodents allied to the jerboas. They are the jumping-hare or jumping-rat.

Helianthemum is a
genus of herbaceous undershrubs and shrubby or creeping plants, also known as the rock-rose genus.

Helicidae is the name by which the land shell-snails are distinguished.

Helictis is a
genus of carnivorous quadrupeds allied to the skunk. They are found in China and Nepal.

Heliotrope (Heliotropium) is a
genus of plants of the natural order Boraginaceae. The species are herbs or undershrubs mostly native of the warmer parts of the world and have alternate leaves and small flowers usually disposed in scorpioid cymes.

The heliozoa are an order of
rhizopoda. The body is radially symetrical and the pseudopodia are thin and stiff. Reproduction is by fission and sexually by the fusion of gametes.

Helix is a
genus of gasteropodous molluscs comprising the land shell-snails.

Hellebore (Helleborus) is a
genus of plants of the natural order Ranunculaceae, consisting of perennial low-growing plants with palmate or pedate leathery leaves, yellowish, greenish or white flowers having five conspicuous persistent sepals and eight to ten small tubular petals.

see "

Helmet-shell is a common name for
molluscs of the genus Cassis, gasteropods of the family Buccinidae found mainly on tropical shores.

Heloderma is a
genus of Mexican lizard. They are about 1 meter in length and some are venomous. They have a thick, squat body covered with rough scales and form burrows under the roots of trees.

Hemerobiidae are the lace-wing flies, a family of neuropterous

Hemerocallis is a
genus of Liliaceae.

Hemichordata is a class of
sub-phylum acrania. They are peculiar marine worm-like creatures.

Hemidesmus is a
genus of twining plants of the natural order Asclepiadaceae, having opposite leaves, and cymes of small greenish flowers. Sarasparilla is derived from them.

Hemimetabola is the section of the
insect class which undergo complete metamorphosis, the larva differing from the perfect insect chiefly in the absence of wings and size.

Hemipodius is a
genus of rasorial birds allied to the quail.

Hemiptera is an order of four-winged
insects, having a suctorial proboscis, the outer wings, or wing-covers, are leathery at the base and transparent towards the tips.

Hemlock (Conium maculatum) is a
poisonous plant of the natural order Umbelliferae. It is a tall, erect, branching biennial, with a smooth, shining, hollow stem usually marked with purple spots. It has elegant, much divided leaves which when bruised emit a nauseous odour. The flowers are white in compound umbels of ten or more rays surrounded by a general involucre of three to seven leaflets.

Hemp is an annual
plant of the genus Cannabis, cultivated for its fibres that are used to make rope.

Hemp-palm (Chamoerops excelsa) is a Chinese and Japanese
species of palm. Rope is made from the fibres of its leaves.

Henbane is a
plant of the genus Hyoscyamus, natural order Solanaceae. It is a coarse, erect biennial herb having soft, clammy, hairy foliage of a disagreeable odour and pale yellowish-brown flowers streaked with puple veins.

Henna (Lawsonia inermis) is a shrub of the natural order Lythraceae, bearing opposite entire leaves and numerous small white fragrant flowers disposed in terminal panicles.

Heracleum is a
genus of large umbelliferous herbs, the cow-parsnips.

Herb-bennet (
Benedict's herb, Avens) is an aromatic plant used as a tonic and astringent.

Herb-robert (
Geranium Robertianum) is a common British plant. It is astringent and aromatic.

plant said to be herbaceous is a perennial plant of which the stem perishes annually, while the roots remain permanent and send forth a new stem in the following season.

A herbivore is an
animal that eats plants.

see "

The Hercules-beetle (Scaraboeus) is a very large Brazilian lamellicorn
beetle. An enormous horn projects from the head, and a smaller one from the thorax. The beetle grows to 12cm long.

An hermaphrodite
animal is one in which both male and female gametes are present.

Hermit-crab is the popular name of the Paguridae family of decapod
crustaceans. They take posession of and occupy cast-off univalve shells of various molluscs, carrying this habitation about with them, and changing it for a larger one as they increase in size.

Hernandia is a
genus of large Indian trees of the natural order Hernandiaceae. They have alternate entire leaves and flowers arranged in axillary or terminal spikes or corymbs.

Heron is a popular name for
birds of the genus Ardea, constituting with the bitterns the family Ardeidae. Herons are spread over almost all the world. They are distinguished by having a long bill cleft beneath the eyes, a compressed body, long slender legs naked above the tarsal joint, three toes in front, the two outer united by a membrane, and by moderate wings. The tail is short, rounded, and composed of ten or twelve feathers. The common Heron is about 1 meter in length.

The herring (Clupea harengus) is an edible
fish found in the north Atlantic. It comes close to the shore in large shoals to spawn.

Hessian Fly
The Hessian Fly (
Cecidomyia destructor) is a fly of the family Tipulidae, of the order Diptera, the larva of which is very destructive to wheat, barley and rye crops.

Heteropoda is an order of
marine molluscs, the most highly organized of the Gasteropoda. In this order the foot is compressed into a vertical muscular lamina, serving for a fin, and the gills, when present, are collected into a mass on the hinder part of the back.

Heteroptera is a section of hemipterous
insects comprising those in which the two pairs of wings are of different consistence, the anterior part being horny or leathery, but generally tipped with membrane. They comprise the land and water bugs.

Heterotricha is an order of
ciliata vera. They are covered in cilia, and have a spiral band of tough cilia leading towards the cytostome.

Hexactinellida is a class of
sponge with a skeleton built of six-rayed spicules made of silica.

Hibiscus is an extensive
genus of plants, natural order Malvaceae chiefly natives of tropical climates. They have large showy flowers, borne singuarly on stalks towards the ends of the branches, these flowers having an outer calyx of numerous leaves in addition to the true five-lobed persistent calyx.

Hickory is several
species of timber trees of the genus Carya of the natural order Juglandaceae. They are natives to North America. The wood is heavy, strong and tenacious.

Highland Collie
see "
Bearded Collie"

Hind is the name of a female
stag or deer.

A Hinny is a hybrid, the product of a
stallion mating with a she-ass. It is smaller and weaker than the mule.

Hippocampus (the Sea-Horse) is a
genus of fish closely allied to the pipe-fish, of singular construction and peculiar habits. The upper parts look rather like a horse's head and neck in miniature. When swimming they maintain a vertical position. They are generally about 15cm to 25cm long and are found mainly in the Mediterranean and Atlantic.

Hippomane are a
genus of plants belonging to the Euphorbiaceae.

The hippopotamus is a large
herbivorous mammal found in Africa.

The hirudinea are the leeches. They are an ectoparasitic class of
annelids with few true segments but each segment shows numerous annuli. Suckers are present at both ends of the body. They lay eggs in cocoons secreted by the clitellum.

The hirudo are

see "

The hoatzin is a
bird found only in the Amazon.

see "

The Hog-fish are teleostean
fish of the genus Scorpoena, family Scorpaenidae.

The Hog-plum are
plants of the genus Spondias, natural order Anacardiaceae. Some of them yield pleasant fruit. The name Hog-plum comes from the West Indies where the fruit was once fed to pigs (hogs).

The Hog-rat (Capromys) is a
genus of rodent animals of the family Muridae.

Holcus is a
genus of grasses, natural order Gramineae.

Holly (
Ilex) is a genus of plants of the order Aquifoliaceae, embracing a number of evergreen trees or shrubs. The common holly is a conical evergreen tree growing to a height of 10 meters in Britain. It's leaves are dark-green, shiny and leathery, abundantly armed with prickles on the lower branches but free from them on the higher branches.

Hollyhock is a
biennial or perennial herb with tall, erect, leafy stems. It is native to central Europe and China. It is an important plant in medicine providing a dark pigment which is also used in cooking.

Holm-oak (Quercus
Ilex) is a shrub-like tree native to Mediterranean countries with holly-like leaves.

Holothuria is a type of

Holothurioidea is an order of Echinoderms, the sea-cucumbers.

The holothuroidea are the sea cucumbers. The body is elongated and appears worm-like. Skeletal plates are minute and imbedded in the fleshy body wall. There are no spines. The mouth is at one end of the body, the
anus at the other. Feeding is carried out by tube feet near the mouth.

Holotricha are an order of
ciliata vera. They are covered in alike cilia.

Holy Grass
Grass (Hierochloe) is an odoriferous genus of grass belonging to the Phalarideae.

The honey-ant (Myrmecocyctus mexicnus) is a Mexican
ant. They live in subterranean galleries and in summer some secrete a kind of honey from their abdomen.

Honey-eater is a name given to a number of insessorial
birds forming the family Meliphagidae, of the tribe Tenuirostres. They form a large group, feeding mainly on honey and the nectar of flowers. These birds are found in Australia and surrounding islands. They have long curved sharp bills, with a tongue terminating in a pencil of delicate filaments.

The honey-guide is a South African
cuckoo of the genus Indicator, which by its cries and motions directs people to the nests of wild honey bees.

The Honey-locust (
Gleditschia triacanthos) is an American forest tree belonging to the natural order Leguminosae. The leaves are pinnated, divided into small leaflets and the foliage has a light and elegant appearance.

Honeysuckle (
Woodbine) is the Lonicera genus of Linnaeus of the natural order Caprifoliaceae. It is a twining shrub with distinct leaves and red berries found in Britain.

Hooded Seal
The hooded
seal (Cystophora cristata) is a species of seal, the male of which has a movable, inflatable muscular bag stretching from the muzzle to behind the eyes. The prevailing colour is black.

A hoof is the horny casing of the foot of a
ruminant, horse, swine or similar animals.

Hoofed is the term applied to
animals with hooves.

The hoopoe (Upupa) is a
bird about 30cm long with a fine crest of pale cinnamon-red feathers tipped with black. It is a ground feeder eating mainly insects.

Hooves is the plural of

The hop is a
plant of the family cannabiaceae. The root is perennial giving out several herbaceous, rough, twining stems with large lobed leaves. The catkins are added to beer to give it flavour.

Hop-clover (
Trifolium procumbens) is a plant of the order Leguminosae, distinguished from other species of clover by its bunch of yellow flowers which wither to brown.

Hops are the dried flowers of the
hop plant.

Horehound (Marrubium vulgare) is a labiate
plant with whitish, downy leaves and stem. The flowers are small, nearly white in crowded whorls. The flowers are aromatic and have a bitter taste. An infusion of horehound was a popular English remedy for coughs and colds.

The hormiphora is a member of the
sub-phylum ctenophora family.

The Hornbills (Bucerotidoe) are a remarkable group of
birds found in southern Asia and Africa. They are akin to the Toucans and Kingfishers. The hornbills are remarkable for the size of their bill and a horny protruberance which surmounts the bill.

Horned pheasant
see "

Horned Ray
see "

Horned Viper
see "

The horned-screamer (
Palamedea cornuta) is a South American grallatorial bird having a long, slender, movable horn projecting from its forehead. It has a loud and shrill voice.

Horned-toad is a popular name for the Phrynosoma
genus of lizards. They are found in America and look rather like toads and are covered with spine-like scales.

The hornet is an
insect of the genus Vespa, much larger and stronger than the ordinary wasp. Hornets are voracious, feeding on fruit and honey and preying on other insects. The nest is formed in hollow-trees and walls. The hornet sting is very painful and usually causes considerable swelling.

The horse is a
hoofed, odd toed grass eating mammal.

Horse Chestnut
Horse Chestnut is a tall deciduous tree native to south-eastern Europe. The fruit is a green spiny capsule containing one or more hard brown seeds known as "conkers".

The Horse-fly is a winged
insect of the family Hippoboscidae which is parasitic on the horse.

Horse-radish (Cochlearia Armoracia) is a cruciferous
plant found in the temperate parts of Europe in moist locations. The root is cylindrical, whitish in colour and forms a popular condiment. It is a pungent tasting and smelling root, excellent with roast beef.

Horse-tail is a popular name for
plants of the genus Equisetum of the natural order Equisetaceae. The cuticle abounds in siliceous cells, a property which allows the horse-tail to be used for polishing wood.

Horseradish is a
cruciferae native to south east Europe. The root is used in cookery as a condiment of beef.

A hound is a hunting
dog which hunts by scent. There are several varieties; bloodhound, staghound, foxhound, harrier and beagle.

The Houseleek (Sempervivum tectorum) is a succulent
plant of the natural order Crassulaceae. It grows on old walls and roofs. The stem reaches about 20cm in length and bears a few purplish flowers which have twelve or fifteen petals.

Howler Monkey
The Howler
Monkey (Mycetes) is a genus of South American monkey characterized by a remarkable loudness of voice. They are prehensile, tailed, large and heavy of body with a high pyramidal head flattened on the summit.

Hoya is a
genus of Asclepiadaceae common in tropical Asia.

The huanaco is a
grey faced species of wild llama.

Huia-bird is a
Maori name for New Zealand's starlings.

A human is an
animal of the genus homo.

Humming-bird is the popular name for the Trochilidae family of munte and beautiful
birds, so called from the sound of their wings in flight. The beak is slender, generally long, sometimes straight and sometimes curved. The tongue is long and filiform. They feed by hovering by a plant and use their tongue to catch insects.

Huon Pine
The Huon
Pine is a tree of the Yew family found in Tasmania and yielding a useful timber.

Hura is a
genus of tropical American plants of the natural order Euphorbiaceae.

see "

Hyacinth is a
genus of liliaceous bulbous plants including about thirty species.

The hyalonema is a member of the
hexactinellida class.

Hydatina is a
phylum rotifera.

The hydra is of the order

Hydrangea is a
genus of shrubs or herbs of the natural order Saxifragaceae, containing about thirty-three species native to Asia and America. The British garden hydrangea was introduced from China in 1790 by Sir J. Banks.

Hydrida is an order of
hydrozoa. They are solitary hydroid freshwater forms which reproduce by budding and sexual reproduction.

Hydrozoa is a class of
sub-phylum cnidaria. They are mainly marine colonial forms which during the life-history have both hydroid and medusoid stages.

The hyena is a
carnivorous mammal found in Africa and Asia.

The hymenoptera is an order of
insects which includes the bees, wasps and ants.

Hypericaceae is a natural order of
plants. They are herbs, shrubs or rarely trees with simple opposite leaves. They have terminal or axillary, solitary, cymose or paniculate flowers which are usually yellow or white.

Hypermastigina are an order of
zoomastigina. They are small flagellates with numerous flagella. They live in the gut of insects. Hypermastigina in the gut of termites assist in the digestion of wood.

Hypotricha is an order of
ciliata vera. They are flattened ciliates with large stiff ciliates on the lower surface which act similarly to legs.

The hyracoidea are an order of
eutheria. They are small rabbit-like creatures.

Hyssop is an aromatic
herb of the family labiatae.