Animals And Plants (R-S)

The rabbit is a long eared burrowing

The racoon is an
American plantigrade carnivorous mammal. It has grayish-brown fur which is used for making hats.

The radiolaria are an order of
rhizopoda. They are radially symetrical and live in the surface layers of seas. They have stiff, radiating pseudopodia and a skeleton.

The ragwort is a
perennial plant found on waste ground.

A rail is any wading
bird of the family Rallidae, including the rails proper (genus Rallus), coots, moorhens, and gallinules. Rails have dark plumage, a short neck and wings, and long legs. They are 10-45cm long.

Rainbird is a name given to several
birds, especially the black-billed cuckoo and the yellow-billed cuckoo. They get their name from the belief that they call frequently before a rain storm.

The Rambouillet is a
breed of sheep developed from the Merino and named after the town of Rambouillet in north France where the breed originated around 1905.

Rambutan is a Malayan sapindaceous
tree bearing a bright-red oval fruit covered with soft spines and having a subacid taste.

Rangpur is a variety of mandarin
orange bearing a tart fruit.

Ranunculaceae is the
buttercup order of plants.

Rape are two
plant species of the mustard family cultivated for the edible oil.

see "

The rasores are an order of
birds. It includes the sub-orders of fowls, turkeys, partridges and grouse. They are characterised by their toes which end in strong claws used for scratching. Hence they are called the scratchers.

The raspberry is a prickly
plant of the rosaceae family.

The rat is a
rodent of the genus Rattus. There are a number of varieties, including the brown rat and the black rat.

The rat-snake is a
snake domesticated in Sri Lanka for killing rats. It is an easily tamed snake.

Rat-tailed Snake
see "
Fer de Lance"

The ratel or honey-badger is a
carnivorous quadruped of the genus Mellivora, and of the badger family. It is found in south and east Africa and India. The South African ratel averages about 3 feet in length including an 8 or 9 inch tail.

The ratitae are an order of
neornithes. They are large running birds, unable to fly.

The ratite is a flightless
bird with a breastbone without the keel to which flight muscles are attached. Examples are the ostrich, rhea, emu, cassowary, and kiwi.

The rattlesnake is a name of various
American venomous snakes of the genus Crotalus, and family Crotalidae. They are distinguished by having a tail which terminates in a number of horny pieces which the animal vibrates to make a rattling sound.

The raven is a large
bird of the crow family, genus Corvus. It feeds on carrion. It is completely black in colour, and can learn to imitate human speech.

The ray is a name of many elasmobranchiate
fishes, including the skate. They are are recognised by a flattened body and by the extremely broad and fleshy pectoral fins which appear as continuations of the body.

The razor-back is a large

The razor-shell is a
genus of lamellibranchiate mollusc common on British coasts.

The razorbill is a North Atlantic sea
bird (Alca torda) of the auk family, which breeds on cliffs and migrates south in winter. It has a curved beak and is black above and white below. It uses its wings as paddles when diving. Razorbills are common off Newfoundland.

Red bellied turtle
Red bellied turtle is a fresh water turtle of the genus Pseudemys found in east and south USA having red markings on the underside of the shell.

Red dog
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Red Gurnard
Red Gurnard (Trigla cuculus) is a British coastal fish of the Gurnard genus.

Red sage
Red sage (yellow sage) is a showy, rank-smelling shrub of tropical America with yellow flowers that turn orange or red.

see "

The redshank is a
bird of the genus Totanus, so named because of the red colouring of its legs. It is found in Britain.

The redstart is a
bird of the Sylviadae family. It has a red tail. It is found in Britain during the summer.

The redwing is a
bird and a species of thrush. It is found in Britain during the winter, and in Europe and Asia during the summer.

The reebok is a
species of South African antelope. It has smooth, long, straight and slender horns. It stands 2.5 feet at the shoulder and is a very fast runner.

Reeds are perennial aquatic grasses.

Reeve is the name of the female
ruff bird.

Reindeer are a
species of deer found in north Europe and north Asia. It has branched, recurved, round antlers. The legs are quite short in proportion to the body. The Laplanders often use reindeer as a substitute for horses, sheep and cattle, using them for pulling sledges, food, and clothing.

Reindeer moss
Reindeer moss is a lichen of the genus Cladonia of arctic and sub-arctic regions eaten by reindeer and caribou.

The remora is a
genus of fish included in the Goby family. They have on top of their head a peculiar sucking-disc which they use to attach themselves to the bottom of other fish or ships.

Reproduction is the unique property possessed by all living organisms to produce new individuals resembling the original organism in all essential respects.

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Reptilia is a class of cold-blooded,
lung breathing vertebrates which includes snakes, lizards, crocodiles, turtles and tortoises.

Respiration is the process of breathing. It is the liberation of
energy from materials within the body of the organism.

The retrievers are several breeds of
dog with a coarse, thick, oily coat bred originally to retrieve game.

The rhabdocoelida are an order of
turbellaria with a simple sac-like intestine or no intestine.

The rhea is a South American
bird. It is about 4 feet tall. It is incapable of flight, but has strong legs and can run very fast.

A Rhinocerous is an odd-toed
hoofed mammal of the family Rhinocerotidae. The one-horned Indian rhinoceros (Rhinoceros unicornis) is up to 2 m high at the shoulder, with a tubercled skin, folded into shieldlike pieces; the African rhinoceroses are smooth-skinned and two-horned. The African black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis) is 1.5m high, with a prehensile upper lip for feeding on shrubs; the broad-lipped or "white" rhinoceros Ceratotherium simum is actually slaty-gray, with a squarish mouth for browsing grass. They are solitary and vegetarian, with poor eyesight but excellent hearing and smell.

The rhizocrinus is a type of

The rhizomastigina are an order of
rhizopoda. They are small amoeboid forms with a flagellum. They live in fresh water.

Rhizopoda is a class of phylum
protozoa which are usually free-living and move and ingest food by means of pseudopodia.

Rhodesian ridgeback
The Rhodesian ridgeback is a
breed of South African dog. It is a medium-sized, muscular dog with a short, glossy red or tan coat with a characteristic ridge of hair along the spine consisting of parallel crowns of hair growing in the opposite direction of the rest of the coat. They were originally bred for hunting lions, but are now primarily used as guard dogs.

The rhododendron is an
evergreen shrub of the ericaceae family.

Rhubarb is a
perennial plant.

see "

Ringneck snake
The ringneck
snake is a small, nonvenomous North American snake of the genus Diadophis usually having a conspicuous yellow or orange ring around the neck.

The roach is a
freshwater fish of north Europe.

The roadrunner is a north
American bird of the cuckoo family.

Robber fly
The Robber fly is a
swift flying large dipterous insect of the family Asilidae which eats other insects.

Robber frog
The robber
frog is a small tropical American frog of the genus Eleutherodactylus.

The robin is one of two songbirds of the
thrush family. The North American thrush, the robin Turdus migratorius is 25 cm long, grey brown with brick-red underparts. The Eurasian and African thrush (Erithacus rubecula) is 13 cm long, olive brown above with a red breast.

Robinia is a
genus of trees of the natural order Leguminosae. They have pink or white flowers. The chief species is the American locust tree which yields a valuable hard wood.

Rocky Mountain goat
Rocky Mountain goat is a long-haired, white, antelope-like goat with short black horns found in mountainous regions of west North America.

The rodent is a
mammal of the family rodentia. They have a single pair of incisor teeth in both the upper and lower jaws that continue to grow as they become worn.

Rodentia is the
rodent order of eutheria. The incisors are chisel-like and used for gnawing. Canines are absent.

Roe deer
roe deer is a small, agile deer. The male has three-pointed antlers.

A roller is any brightly coloured
bird of the Old World family Coraciidae, resembling crows but in the same order as kingfishers and hornbills. Rollers grow up to 32cm long. The name is derived from the habit of some species of rolling over in flight.

Romney Marsh
The Romney Marsh or Kentish is a
breed of hardy English sheep good for fattening and immune from foot-rot and liver-rot.

The rook is a member of the
crow family.

A rookery is a
colony of rooks, penguins or seals.

see "

A roost is a
bird's perching or resting place.

Rooster is the name for a male domestic
fowl and certain game birds.

The rosaceae is the rose family. They exhibit an exogenous mode of
growth, have several petals, distinct, perigynous, separate carpels and numerous stamens.

The rose are shrubs and climbing
plants of the genus rosa and family rosaceae.

Rosemary is an
evergreen shrub.

see "

Rotifer is a
phylum rotifera.

Rotifera (Rotatoria) is a class of minute
animals related to the Arthropods and the Annelid worms. They have usually a top-shaped transparent body. The head is furnished with cilia, which lash in unison giving the appearance of a revolving wheel and enabling the animal to swim.

The rottweiler is a
breed of German guard dog.

Roundworm is a common name for
phylum nematoda.

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Rubiaceae are
trees, shrubs or herbs, mostly tropical, with leaves possessing prominent stipules, in some cases as large as leaves.

The rudd (Scardinius erythrophthalmus) is a
freshwater fish, a type of minnow, belonging to the carp family Cypridae, common in lakes and slow rivers of Europe; now introduced in the USA. Brownish green above and silvery below, with red fins and golden eyes, it can reach a length of 45 cm and a weight of 1kg.

Rue (Ruta) is a
genus of plants of the order Rutaceae. Common Rue is a strong smelling yellowish British garden plant which was once used as a charm against witches and is mentioned in Shakespeare's works as the "herb of grace".

The ruff is a
bird belonging to the grallatores (waders). It was once abundant in Britain.

Rumex acetosa
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Ruminant is the group (ruminatia) of even-toed
hoofed mammals, including chevrotains, camels, deer, giraffes, the prong-buck and cattle, that have more than one stomach and chew the cud.

The term "ruminate" refers to
ruminant animals.

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The rush (Juncus) is a
genus of plants of the order Juncaceae.

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Rye (Secale cereale) is a
grass cultivated in Russia, Germany and Scandinavia. It's flour is used to make "black bread".

Sabella are

The sable is a
carnivorous type of marten.

Sable antelope
sable antelope (Hippotragus niger) is a large African antelope with long, saber-like horns and in the male a black coat.

The Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius) is a composite
plant native to India. It's large red flowers yield the dye carthamine used in the preparation of rouge.

Sage (Salvia) is a
genus of perennial herbs of the order Labiatae.

Sagitta is a
phylum chaetognatha.

The Saiga (Saiga tartarica) is an
antelope found on the steppes of Europe and Asia. It has a large inflated nose and yellow, lyre shaped horns. The Saiga was in prehistoric times native to Britain.

The sailfish is a large tropical and sub-tropical
marine fish of the family Istiophoridae distinguished by a long, high dorsal fin, long pelvic fins and a double keel on each side of the tail.

Sainfoin (Onobrychis sativa) is a
plant of the order Leguminosae with pink flowers and used as fodder.

Saki Monkeys
Saki Monkeys (Pithecia) are a genus of American monkeys of the family Cebidae, with non-prehensile tails and projecting incisor teeth. They are found mainly in the Amazon valley.

The salamander is a small
amphibian of the subclass urodela. They have a small rounded plump, usually spotted body without a dorsal crest. Salamanders are widely distributed throughout Europe but are absent from Britain.

The salicaceae are a natural order of apetalous exogens distinguised by a 2 valved capsule, and numerous seeds tufted with long hairs.

Sallow is a popular name of
trees of the willow family. Common Sallow or goat willow (Salix caprea) was used in the manufacture of gun-powder charcoal.

Salmonidae is the
Salmon family of bony fish. The body is long and covered with scales, but the head is naked and has no barbel. Most characteristic is the second dorsal fin which is small, fleshy and without rays. The family includes the Salmon and the trout.

Salsify is a purple-flowered composite
plant whose root has an oyster-like flavour and is used as a culinary vegetable. It is also known as the oyster plant and vegetable oyster.

The saluki is a black and tan, white,
gold or tricolour breed of dog resembling the greyhound and having fringes of long hair on the ears, legs and thighs. It originates from Egypt and south west Asia and is also known as the gazelle hound.

Salvinia is a
genus of floating heterosporous ferns. The spores form on the underside of the leaves and drop to the pond bed when the old plants die, giving rise to fresh plants in the spring.

The samoyed is a Siberian
breed of dog.

Samphire (Crithmum) is a
genus of plants of the order Umbelliferae. The common samphire (rock-plant) has umbels of yellow flowers and makes an excellent pickle.

Sand dollar
sand dollar is a flat, dish-like sea urchin that lives on the sandy bottoms of the sea off the coast of North America.

The sand-eel (Launces, Ammodytidae) is a small, long-bodied
fish related to the cod family found burrowing in the sand on the coasts of the northern hemisphere.

Sandbox tree
The Sandbox
tree is an American tree of the genus Hura. It is a large branching tree with glossy leaves and large, furrowed, round fruits about the size of an orange. When the seed-vessels burts they make a remarkably loud retort.

Sandwort (Arenaria) is a
genus of plants of the natural order Caryophyllaceae, comprising low herbs with usually awl-shaped leaves and small white flowers.

Sanguinaria is a
genus of plants of the order Papaveraceae.

Sanguinaria canadensis
see "

Sapindaceae is a natural order of mainly tropical
trees which includes the soapberry.