Animals And Plants (D-E)

The dab is a
marine flat fish.

The dabchick is an
English bird of the grebe family.

The dace is a fresh
water fish of the carp family.

The dachshund is a small
dog originally bred for badger hunting.

Dactylopius coccus
see "

The daffodil are several
species of plant of the genus narcissus.

The dahlia is a
genus of perennial plants of the compositae family.

The daisy is a
genus of hardy perennial plants of the compositae family.

Dalbergia is a
genus of fine tropical forest trees and climbing shrubs of the order Leguminosae. The group includes the black-wood tree (also called the East Indian rosewood) and the sissoo.

The dalmatian is a spotted
dog. It was formerly known as the Danish spotted or coach dog.

Dames-violet (Dames-wort) is a British
perennial plant of the order Cruciferae. It grows to about 2 to 3 feet tall and flowers in May and June.

see "

Dammar Pine
The dammar
pine is a genus of trees of the order Coniferae distinguished by their large lanceolated leathery leaves, and by their seeds having a wing on one side instead of proceeding from the end.

The damselfly is a predatory
insect with 2 pairs of wings.

The damson is a type of
plum tree.

The dandelion is a
plant of the order Compositae indigenous to Europe. It gets its name from its appearance, dent de lion (French for Lion's tooth). The stems are hollow and have one bright yellow flower. The root was formerly used as a medicine for liver complaints.

Daphne (
Spurge Laurel) is a low shrub with few branches and smooth erect stems which are bare of leaves except at the summit. The leaves are smooth, shining and evergreen. The flowers are green, and fragrant in damp weather. The berries are black, egg-shaped and poisonous.

Daphnia is a
genus of minute crustaceans belonging to the division Branchiopoda. They are the water-fleas.

Darlingtonia is a
genus of American pitcher plants of the order Sarraceniceae.

Darnel (Lolium temulentum) is the only
poisonous British grass.

The Darter (Snake-bird) is a
bird closely related to the cormorant, but differing in its much longer nech and heron-like pointed bill. Darters are found in South America, Africa, tropical Asia and Australia, fishing in rivers and ponds after the manner of cormorants, but nesting in trees.

Darters are a
genus of web-footed birds of the pelican family. They are found near the eastern coast of tropical parts of north America, the west coast of Africa, and in Australia.

Dasyure are the brush-tailed opossums, a
genus of plantigrade marsupials found in Australia and Tasmania.

The date is a
tree of the genus phoenix.

The date-plum is the name given to several
trees of the Ebony family (Diospyros). Their fruit is edible.

Datura is a genius of
plants of the order Solanaceae, with large trumpet-shaped flowers. They are all poisonous. The genus includes the thorn-apple.

Daucus is a
genus of umbelliferous plants, including the carrot.

The dauw is a
species of zebra found in the plains of South Africa north of the Orange River.

The dead-nettle is a
species of plant of the genus Lamium, order Labriatae which resemble the nettle in appearance but have no sting.

The deal-fish (Trachypterus arcticus) is a
fish found around Iceland and Norway. It is between 4 and 8 inches long, a silvery colour and has minute scales. The dorsal fin extends along the whole length of the back.

Death's Head Moth
The Death's Head
Moth is a large handsome moth related to the hawk-moth. It is so named from its likeness to a large yellow patch on the thorax of the human skull. It is remarkable for the sound it produces. The larva, by snapping its mandibles together, emits a clicking sound comparable to a series of electric sparks. This moth has been known to enter bee hives and take honey.

Death-watch beetle
The death-watch
beetle (Anobium tesselatum) is a coleopterous insect that inhabits the wood-work of houses.

Decaisnea is a
genus of plants of the order Lardizabalaceae found on the Himalayas. It has erect stalks which look like walking sticks and leaves 2 feet long. The fruit resembles a cucumber and has a sweet, yellow edible pulp.

Decandria is the tenth class of
plants. The flowers have 10 stamens, and 1, 2 3 or more pistils.

Decapoda is an order of
malacostraca. The carapace completely covers the thorax. The exopodite of the maxilla is large. There are three pairs of maxillipeds.

Deciduous is a term referring to
trees and shrubs that shed their leaves each year.

The deer is a family of
ruminant hoofed mammals (Cervidae) allied to the Antelopes. They are distinguished by the presence of antlers.

The Deerhound is a
breed of dog. It originated in the 14th century and was bred for stag hunting.

Deinonychus was a
carnivorous dinosaur of the cretaceous period. It was 3m long and 1.4M tall. A long tail aided balance as it ran. It had 12cm long claws on its feet which were used for tearing flesh from its prey.

The delphinium is a ranunculaceous
plant with irregular shaped flowers.

The demospongia is a class of sponges with a
skeleton of four-rayed spicules made of silica, or spongin fibres, or no skeleton at all.

Dendrocoelum is a member of the order

The dewberry is a
plant related to the raspberry and blackberry. The stem is prostrate and nearly round, prickly below, bristly above. The leaves are comprised of 3 - 5 leaflets and the fruit consists of a few large drupes covered with greyish bloom and half enclosed in the calyx.

The dhole (
red dog or Asiatic wild dog) is two species of wild dog, one found in Siberia and the other in India. The Indian dhole is about the size of a bull terrier and hunts in packs feeding mainly on deer and antelope. It has a reputation for great courage, and is alleged to drive bears, leopards and even tigers from their kills.

Dianthus is the
carnation genus of Caryophyllaceae distinguished by the presence of scales outside the calyx, by the grouping of the sepals into a tube and other characteristics.

The diapsida is a subclass of
reptiles. The skull has two temporal vacuities.

Diatoms are minute lowly organised
plants found in most seas.

The diatomaceae are a large class of unicellular algae occuring in fresh and salt
water and on damp soil. The cells are of diverse forms, their walls silicified and formed of two over-lapping valves, like a box and lid. The cell has a single, complex nucleus, brownish yellow chromatophores, and often contains much oil.

Dicotyledon is one of the two groups of flowering
plants, primarily distinguished from the Monocotyledons by the two cotyledons or seed leaves formed at the end of the growing embryo, and by the depression between which the growing point of the shoot originates.

The didactyla is an order of
metatheria. They are carnivorous and insectivorous. The digits are free.

Digenea is an order of
trematoda. They are endoparasitic flukes with no hooks or posterior sucker. They usually have a ventral sucker and an oral sucker. The life history requires an intermediate host, often a mollusc. The adults are chiefly parasites of warm-blooded vertebrates.

Digitalis is a
genus of plants of the natural order Scrophulariaceae native to Europe and western Asia. The name Digitalis also applies to the medicinal extracts from the plants.

Dik dik
A dik dik is a tiny
antelope found in Africa south of the sahara

Dill is a
herb umbelliferae.

The dingo is wild
dog found in Australia.

The dinoflagellata are an order of
phytomastigina. These are the planktons. They have a definite capsule made of cellulose.

The dinosaurs were a family of
reptiles which lived on the earth millions of years ago. About 400 types of dinosaur have been identified. Dinosaurs ranged in size from about as big as a pigeon to twice the height of a giraffe. It is estimated that dinosaurs lived for between 70 and 130 years, and unusually continued growing for their entire life.

Dioscoreaceae is a family of
twining shrubs or herbs belonging to the Monocotyledonous group, but resembling the Dicotyledons in many superficial characters, the leaves being decidedly stalked and having netted veins. The order is a small one, and with the exception of one genus (Tamus) confined to the tropics. The order includes the Yam.

Diospyros are
trees of the order Ebenacea, from which ebony is obtained.

Diphyllobothrium is a

Diplodinium is a member of the order of

The diplopoda is the millipede order of
myriapoda. They have an anterior genital posterior.

The dipnoi are an order of
crossopterygii. The teeth form crushing plates.

The Dipper is a family of
birds (Cinclidae) of the order Passeriformes. They are allied to the wrens and thrushes but are aquatic.

Dipsaceae is the teazel and
scabious family of herbaceous, dicotyledenous family of plants found in temperate regions. They have flowers crowded together in heads like the Compositae, but differing in the rigid bracteoles which surround each. The leaves are usually opposite and without stipules.

Doberman Pinscher
The doberman pinscher is an energetic
breed of working dog with a reputation as a fierce guard dog.
They have a black, reddish, blue, or fawn coat which is short, smooth, glossy, and is usually highlighted with tan shadings. The ears are large, broad at the base and cropped to stand erect and pointed.
The tail is docked to a stump and the eyes are brown and almond-shaped with a keen, always-alert expression. The adult dog stands about 70 cm at the shoulder and weighs about 30kg.
The breed originated in Apolda, Thuringia in about 1890 and takes its name from tax collector Louis Dobermann of Apolda, who used these dogs to aid him in his work.

Dodder is a
genus of parasitic plants belonging to the family Convolvulaceae, with branched, climbing, cord-like stems, no leaves, and globular heads of wax-like flowers. The seeds germinate in the ground, and the young plants climb the stems of the adjoining plants, and when they have taken root in them lose their connection with the ground.

The Dodo was a huge, flightless
pigeon discovered by the early voyagers to Mauritius, but now extinct. It was remarkable for its huge hooked bill and tiny wings.

A dog is a domesticated
mammal of the order canidae descended from the wolf.

The dogfish is a small
shark found in the north east atlantic ocean and mediterranean.

The Dolphin is a
genus of cetaceans. They are highly intelligent.

Donkey is another name for

The Dory is a sea
fish found in the Mediterranean and Atlantic. It is of the family Zeidae and order Zeomorphae.

The dotterel is a
bird which visits Britain in the summer.

The dove is a
bird of the family Columbidae (pigeon).

A dromedary is a type of Arabian

The Dromiceidae are a family of the order
Casuariformes. These are the emus. They are found only in Australia and Tasmania. It is incapable of flight.

A drone is a mature male
bee which are produced at the same time as a virgin queen for the purpose of continuing the community.

A duck is a short legged
water bird with webbed feet.

Duckweed is a minute floating
plant, often so abundant as to cover the surface of stagnant water, where, with the insects it harbours, it is greedily devoured by ducks.

The dugong is a
marine mammal of the order Sirenia, found in the Indian Ocean from east Africa to west Australia. It nevers come on land, and subsists on seaweed.

The duiker are a large group of
African antelopes distinguished by the linear arrangement of the pores of the facial gland. The forehead is usually tufted between the horns, which are short and smooth. Many species are known, varying in size from a fox to a sheep, and the name is derived from their habit of diving under cover when alarmed.

Dulse is an edible
seaweed with leathery purple leaves, found on rocky coasts.

The dunlin is a British
water bird.

Eagle is the name given to several large
birds of prey of the family accipitridae.

see "

Earth-star is a fungus found in wet woodlands in the south of
England. It has a ball-like spore-case raised on a short stalk, with back-turned petal-like appendages.

see "

The Earwig (Forifculidae) is a family of the order Dermaptera.

The echidna or spiny
anteater (Tachyglossus aculeatus) is an egg-laying, burrowing, nocturnal mammal. It has no teeth, but a long extensile tongue. The echidna is found in rocky districts of Australia.

Echinococcus is a

The echinoidea are a class of
phylum echinodermata. They are the sea urchins. The body is typically glubular. The skeletal plates fit closely together to form a rigid "test". Spines are present.

Echinus are a member of the
echinoidea class.

Ecology is a study of the relationship between an organism and its environment.

Ectoprocta is a class of
phylum polyzoa. They have a u shaped gut and the anus opens outside of the circlet of ciliated tentacles.

Edelweiss is a small
rosette plant with narrow leaves covered with long, white, silky hairs and white flowers, belonging to the family Compositae. It grows wild in the Swiss Alps.

The Edentata is an order of
mammals with no teeth, or very simple teeth without enamel.

Eel Grass
grass is the species of the genus vallisneria. The flowers are unisexual, the female flowers floating on the surface of the water, whilst the male flowers become detatched from the plant and float to the surface.

see "

Egestion is the process of eliminating food which has not been

Egg-plant was the 19th century name, and is still used in
America to describe the plant we now call the aubergine. It is an herbaceous plant of the order Solanaceae. The fruit is eaten.

The eider is a British coastal

Eimeria is a member of the
coccidia vera order.

The eisenia are

Elasmobranchs is a sub-class of
fish distinguished by the absence of bones, the skeleton being entirely cartilaginous. It includes the sharks, rays and skates, and dates back to the Upper Silurian period.

The elder is a
tree of the Caprifoliaceae, related to the honeysuckle. It is remarkable for the large quantity of pith contained in its young branches and for the elasticity of its wood. The leaves are pinnate and have a strong odour. The fruit are globose, shining dark purple and sometimes white.

Elecampane (Inula Helenium) is a
perennial plant belonging to the Compositae family. It is a stout plant standing just over 1 meter tall, with very large, rectangular, or egg-shaped, toothed leaves, downy beneath, the upper ones embracing the stem. The flowers are few and very large bright yellow with terminal heads.

Electric Eel
The Electric Eel is an eel-like
fish found in rivers and marshes of north South America. It grows to 2 meters long and 20 cm wide. It generates an electric current which it uses to stun and kill other fish which it then eats.

The elephant is the two surviving
species of the order proboscidea.

Elephant Seal
elephant seal (sea elephant) is the largest of the seals. The male grows to about 6 meters in length with a girth of 3 meters, and has a large sac of skin on his nose which can be inflated with air to resemble a small trunk.

The elk or
moose, is a large deer (Alces alces) found in north Europe, Asia and Scandinavia. They are distinguished by a swollen, flexible snout, wide palmated antlers, extending horizontally sideways and long legs. They feed mostly on foliage, twigs, mosses and lichens, and in summer wade into rivers for water-lilies and other plants.

The elm is a
tree of the family ulmaceae. It has alternate, stalked, deciduous leaves, generally serrated and harsh. There are two British species; common elm (Ulmus campestris) once found in southern England, and wych elm (Ulmus montana) formerly found in northern England and Scotland. Dutch Elm Disease accounted for almost completely wiping out the British elm trees during the 1970s.

Elodea (
Canadian Pond Weed) is a plant which grows submerged in water, usually floating a little below the surface. It has long green stems and small pointed leaves. It was introduced to Britain by accident from Canada.

Embryology is the study of
animal development.

Emperor Moth
Emperor Moth is a handsome moth distinguished by the large eye-shaped patch on each of its wings. It is the only British representative of the typical saturniid silk moths.

Emperor Penguin
Emperor Penguin is a seabird of the order Sphenisciformes, family Spheniscidae. It is the largest of all seabirds and one of the hardiest. It lives all year round on the Antarctic pack ice enduring hurricane force winds and temperatures as low as minus 20 degrees celsius. Emperor Penguins grow to about 112 cm long and weigh between 20 and 40 kgs. They eat fish, crustaceans and squid and live for around 20 years.

The emu is a large, ostrich-like flightless
bird found in Australia and resembling the cassowary in its vestigial wings and double-plumed feathers, but differing in the absence of the helmet, wattles, and spine-like quills on the wings.

Enchanter's Nightshade
Enchanter's Nightshade is a
slender herbaceous plant of the family Onagracea, with a branched downy stem; egg-shaped leaves, toothed and pointed, and hairy calyx. The flowers are small and white with pink stamens and borne in graceful branched racemes and are succeeded by two-lobed hairy seed vessels.

Endive is a salad
plant of the order Compositae.

An endogen is an
endogenous plant.

Endogenous refers to the structure of the vascular system, which consists of strands of ligneous
tissue isolated in a cylinder of cellular tissue. The term is used to describe the Monocotyledonous group of plants.

Engraulis encrasicholus
see "

see "
Evening Primrose"

Entomophilous is a term applied to
plants that are dependant upon insects for the transference of pollen. The flowers are brightly coloured and sweetly scented to attract insects, and frequently secrete honey from glands in the petals.

Entoprocta is a class of
phylum polyzoa. They have a u shaped gut and the anus opens within a circlet of ciliated tentacles.

Epilobium is a
genus of the Onagraceae family of plants. They have a long four-sided, four-valved, four-celled capsule containing numerous seeds tufted with down. The rose bay is a tall handsome species with long racemes of rose-coloured flowers.

see "

Epistylis is a member of the order of

Equidae is a family of
hoofed mammals of the order Perissodactyla, including the horse, zebra and ass.

Equisetum is the
Horse-tail genus of plants.

Ergot is a fungoid parasite found on several cereals, principally
rye. It causes the disease of ergotism and is widely used in medicine.

Ericaceae is a dicotyledonous family of shrubs or small
bushy trees with evergreen, often rigid, opposite or whorled leaves.

Ermine is a name for the
stoat in its winter dress of a white coat which it assumes in winter in cold countries. The term is also used to describe the white fur obtained from a suitable stoat in winter.

Esparto Grass
Esparto grass is a grass formerly grown in Spain and used for weaving and plaiting into mats and light baskets. It was later used for making paper.

Eucalyptus is a
tree native to Australia where it is called the gum tree.

The euglenoidina are an order of
phytomastigina. They have an elongated spindle-shaped body and swim in a spiral path.

Euoplocephalus was an armoured
herbivore dinosaur from the cretaceous period. Even its eyelids were armoured. At the end of its powerful tail was a bulb. The tail could have been used to disable predators attacking it.

Eupatorium (
Hemp Agrimony) is a genus of plants of the family Compositae.

Euphausiacea is an order of
malacostraca. The carapace encloses the thorax. There is one set of gills.

Euphorbiaceae is a family of
plants distributed over most of the tropical and temperate regions of the globe, especially the warmer parts of America. They are either trees, shrubs or herbs, some having the external form of the cactus family. Nearly all the members of this large tribe possess a juice, often milky, which is highly acrid and narcotic.

The euplectella is a member of the
hexactinellida class.

Euplotes is a member of the order of

The euspongia, or
bath sponge, is a member of the demospongia class.

The eutheria are a subclass of higher
mammals. The young are born as miniature adults after a prolonged period of gestation.

Evening Primrose
Primrose (Enothera) is an herbaceous plant of the order Onagraceae, allied to the willow herb. It is common in gardens and attains a height of 1 meter. It has lanceolate smooth leaves and spikes of large pale yellow flowers which open in the evening and die towards the middle of the next day.

Excretion is the process of getting rid of unwanted substances from within the body.

Eyebright is a small
plant of the Scrophulariaceae, standing about 5 to 15 cm tall, with deeply cut leaves and loose spikes of numerous white or purplish flowers with yellow patches.

The eyra is a small South American wild