General Information (T)

Tabaret is an
upholstery fabric with alternate satin and watered-silk stripes.

A tabernacle is a temporary or slightly built dwelling, such as a
hut, booth or tent.

Tabes is a slow
progressive emaciation.

Historically, a tablier was the apron-like part of a woman's dress.

Taboo (tabu, tapu) is a Polynesian word meaning "thou shall not....". It is a system of prohibitions and an elaborate code of things which may not be done, touched or approached.

see "

A tachograph is a device fitted to a motor vehicle which records its speed and distances travelled. Tachographs are often called the spy in the
cab by lorry drivers who are restricted in how long they may drive for by law.

A tachometer is a device for measuring the
velocity of machines or the rate of flow of liquids.

A tack is a small sharp
nail, usually with a large flat head. They are used for fitting a light or thin object to a more solid one, such as carpet to the floor.

Tackle is a term used to describe the equipment used in a sport, especially fishing. In nautical terms, tackle refers to ropes and pulleys used for hoisting weights, sails etc.

Tact is the intuitive
perception of what is correct or fitting especially in the context of knowing the right thing to say or how to behave in a situation.

Tael (also called liang) is a Chinese weight. It was based upon the weight of a non-existent
silver coin and was used in commerce between China and foreign countries around the turn of the century.

Taffeta is a fine plain-woven usually glossy fabric of
silk or mother material.

Taffy is a colloquial nickname for a Welshman. It derives from the supposed
Welsh pronunciation of the name Davy.

Tai-Ping Rebellion
The Tai-Ping Rebellion was a civil war which took place in
China from 1850 to 1866. The rebellion was led by Hung Siu-tsuan, who proclaimed himself the founder of a Tai-ping dynasty.

A tailor is a maker of men's outer garments or of women's garments which have similar characteristics such as
coats, suits and riding-clothes.

Taj Mahal
The Taj Mahal is a white
marble mausoleum built at Agra by Shah Jehan in memory of his favourite wife who died in 1629. It took 20000 men 20 years to build.

Tallow is the fat of
animals, especially sheep and ox, separated by melting and clarifying and used for making soap, candles and other things.

Originally, a tally was a piece of wood scored across with notches representing an amount of debt or payment. The wood was then split in half lengthways and each party kept half.

A talma was a long cape or
cloak worn by both men and women during the early part of the 19th century.

Talmud is a collection of works, containing the laws and ceremonies of Rabbinical Judaism together with commentaries, put into writing between the 2nd and 6th centuries.

A tam-o-shanter is a round woollen or cloth
cap with a flat baggy top much wider than the head band. It is named after the hero of Burn's poem "Tam o' Shanter".

Tamal is a Mexican dish of crushed
maize with pieces of meat or chicken, red pepper etc., wrapped in corn husks and baked or steamed.

A tambour is a device used in
embroidery. It is comprised of two hoops which fit closely one inside the other. Fabric is stretched over the tambour which then holds it fast so that it may be embroidered.

A tambourine is a musical percussion instrument.

A tambourine is a long narrow drum used in music.

Tammany Society
The Tammany Society was founded in the
USA in 1789 for the purpose of preserving democratic ideas against Alexander Hamilton's aristocratic doctrine.

Tammy is a fine woollen or
wool and cotton textile fabric often with a glazed finish.

A tampion is a plug for the top of an organ
pipe or a cover for the muzzle of a gun.

A tampon is a plug inserted into a wound or body orifice to absorb secretions or stop haemorrhaging.

A tandem is a
bicycle with two or more seats one behind the other.

A tang is a projection of a knife or other metal
tool by which it is secured to its handle.

The tango was a
dance from central Africa which was taken to Central America by African slaves and from there it became popular in Argentina where it was influenced by European rhythms and developed into a fashionable ballroom dance in around 1910.

A tangram is a Chinese geometrical puzzle comprised of a square which is divided into 5 triangles, a square and a rhomboid which can then be fitted together to form many figures.

A tankard is a large, one-handled drinking vessel.

Tanner is an old
English slang expression for a sixpence. More properly, a tanner is someone who tans hides.

A tannery is a place where hides are tanned.

Tannin is a substance used to tan hides, that is convert them into
leather. Tannin is extracted from oak-galls and various barks.

Tantalum is a metal
element with the symbol Ta.

Taoism is an ancient Chinese system of philosophy.

A taper is a
slender wax candle. The term is often used for a long wax coated or wooden wick used to light candles or fires at a safe distance.

A tapestry is a thick hand-woven fabric, usually of
wool, with a pictorial or ornamental design formed by the weft-threads.

Tapioca is a starchy granular foodstuff prepared from
cassava and used in puddings. The name comes from the Brazilian word tipioca which translates as juice of cassava.

A tappet is an
arm, collar or cam within a machine which imparts intermittent motion.

see "

Tar is a thick viscid inflammable black liquid obtained by the distillation of wood,
coal or other organic substances. It is used for preserving timber amongst other purposes.

A tarantass was a large covered travelling carriage without
springs, but balanced on long poles which served instead, and without seats. Tarantass were used a lot in Russia around the beginning of the 20th century.

Tarantella is a
swift, whirling Italian dance in six-eight measure.

Tarantism was an obscure illness which was
epidemic in southern Italy between the 15th and 17th centuries. It manifested itself in melancholy and an overwhelming desire to dance. It was popularly believed to be caused by the bite of the tarantula.

Taraxacin is a
bitter substance found in the milky juice of the dandelion. It was formerly used as a tonic and diuretic.

A tarboosh is a man's brimless
cap resembling a fez and worn alone or as part of a turban by Muslims in some eastern Mediterranean countries.

Tarbrush is an alternative name for a

A tariff is a list of articles upon which duties are charged when exported or imported.

Tarlatan was a thin and fine fabric of
cotton mostly used for making women's ball dresses around 1900. It was cheap, but did not withstand washing.

A tarn is a small
moorland or mountain lake.

Tarsia-work was a kind of marquetry popular in 15th century
Italy. It consisted of pieces of different coloured woods inlayed into a panel of walnut so as to represent landscapes, figures, fruits etc.

Tartan is a woollen cloth with stripes of various colours crossing at right angles especially in the distinctive pattern of a
Highland clan.

Tartar (
potassium tartrate) is a white crust deposited in wine casks during fermentation. The purified crystals are used in cooking, and often called cream of tartar. The term is also used for the concretion deposited upon teeth from saliva and comprised of phosphate of lime.

Tartaric Acid
Acid is a popular name for dihydroxysuccinic acid. It occurs in many plants, particularly in the grape and is easily obtained from tartar.

Tartrate is a salt of tartaric

Tasmanite is a translucent, reddish-brown
fossil resin found in Tasmania.

A tassel is a tuft of loosely hanging threads or cords designed as an ornament for a cushion,
cap or other object.

Tatting is a type of knotted lace made from sewing-thread with a small flat shuttle-shaped instrument.

A tatty is a cuscus
grass mat which is hung in a doorway, or window and kept wet to cool the air in the building.

Tavla is the national game of
Turkey. It is called backgammon in Europe.

see "
Hackney Coach"

Taxidermy is the art of preparing and mounting the skins of
animals in a lifelike manner. In colloquial terms, stuffing dead animals.

A taximeter is an apparatus by means of which the legal fare is shown to passengers in a

see "

Technetium is an artificial
element with the symbol Tc.

Tectonics is the study of
rock movements.

A teetotum is a top spun with the fingers, rather than a whip or cord.

Telegony is the theory of pre-paternal influence on offspring. That is, that a previous male mate may
pass characteristics to an offspring conceived by the same mother, but a different father. No evidence has been furnished to support the theory, but never the less, it was a popular belief amongst animal breeders.

Originally the term telegraphy refereed to any form of signalling. With the advent of electronic telegraph systems the term became more specific to electronic signalling, and more recently to the transmission of
data, as distinct from telephony which signals voice, electronically. E.G.: Morse code by radio wave or through a telephone line.

The telephone is an instrument for reproducing speech at a distance from the source. It was invented by
Alexander Graham Bell. Long distance telephony was developed in the 1920s following the experiments of Dr. H. W.Nichols, with links between major cities in the continents introduced in 1927.

Telephony refers to the
reproduction of speech at a distance from the source. Telephony may occur with the use of a telephone, or through wireless apparatus such as radio equipment.

A telescope is an instrument which magnifies distant objects. The telescope was first invented in 1609 and in 1610
Galileo using his own made telescope discovered the satellites of Jupiter.

Television is a system for seeing distant objects through the intermediary of electro-magnetic waves transmitted through space or over wires. It was first developed during the 1920s.

Tellurium is a semi-metallic
element with the symbol Te.

Telpherage is a system of traction by
aerial ropeway used for the conveyance of minerals over rough country. A stout steel cable supported on poles forms the track and on this are hung small trolleys with wheels running on the cable. A second cable conveys electric current to the trolleys which are driven by motors.

Telugu is one of the Dravidian languages of
India, spoken by the inhabitants of the area between Madras, Bellary and Orissa.

Tempera is a process of spreading a mixture of
paint and a glutinous material on a flat surface. It is a process which was popular with early Italian artists.

Tempering is the process of heating up
steel until red hot and then suddenly cooling it in water. The result is to harden the steel.

A temple is a building dedicated to the service of a deity or deities.

Tempo is the
pace at which a piece of music is played.

A tendril is a
slender, thread-like organ or appendage of a plant which stretches out and attaches itself to some other object so as to support the plant.

Tennis is a game for two or four players played by striking a
ball with a racket over a net stretched across a rectangular court.

Tenure is the right or title by which property is held.

A Teocalli is an
Aztec or other early Mexican temple. They are usually built in the form of a pyramid.

A tepee is a conical tent,
hut or wigwam used by North American Indians.

Teratology is the science concerned with the occurrence of monstrosity in
organic life.

Terbium is a metal
element with the symbol Tb belonging to the series known as rare earths.

Tercel is the term for a male

Terpene is a
chemistry term for any of a large group of cyclic hydrocarbons which form the chief constituents of the volatile oils obtained by distilling plant material (Turpentine).

Terpenes are an important group of
hydrocarbons with the formula C10H16. Many occur naturally in the essential oils of various plants.

Terra Cotta
Terra Cotta is a baked
clay, or burned earth material similar to that from which pottery is made. It was extensively used in ancient times. Terra Cotta consists of potters' clay and fine powdered silica.

Terra di Sienna
see "
Burnt Sienna"

A terrine is an earthenware vessel sold containing some table delicacy such as pate.

A tessera was a
Greek or Roman small tablet (of wood or Ivory) used as a token or tally.

A tester is the canopy over a four-poster bed.

Tetanus (lockjaw) is a disease affecting the nervous system caused by a
bacteria found mainly in soil.

Tetra-Ethyl-Lead is an organo-metalic
compound widely used as an anti-knock agent in leaded petrol.

A tetrahedron is a geometric solid figure with four triangular

A tetrode is an electronic amplifying
valve with 4 main electrodes.

A textile is a woven fabric. The manufacture of textiles is one of the oldest
human arts already well developed before history began, with loom weights and combs found with the remains of Iron Age Man.

Thalidomide was a sedative drug prescribed to pregnant women during the 1960s. It caused deformity of the
foetus resulting in children born with severely stunted or non-existent limbs.

Thallium is a metal
element with the symbol Tl.

Thalweg is a term of
German origin signifying the lowest contour line of a valley, and therefore the natural direction of a stream or dried watercourse.

Thanksgiving is an annual festival in the
USA, celebrated on the last Thursday in November, since it was so fixed by President Lincoln in 1864. The custom dates from the thanksgiving day set aside by the Mayflower Pilgrims after their first harvest in 1621, and was later adopted by the various colonies and States.

A thatch is a roof made by

Thatching is a method of roofing used to protect buildings and
ricks. The material most commonly used is straw, but bracken, gorse, heather and reeds may serve a similar purpose.

A thaumatrope is a card or disc with two different figures drawn one each side. These images apparently merge when the card or disk is rotated rapidly. Thaumatropes are used to demonstrate the persistence of visual impressions.

The Court of Criminal Appeal
Court of Criminal Appeal is an English court with jurisdiction to hear appeals by persons convicted on indictment, criminal information, coroner's inquisitions and by persons dealt with at Quarter Sessions as incorrigible rogues. It was established in 1907.

The Five Mile Act
The Five
Mile Act was a statute of 1592, repealed in 1844 after a long period of disuse, forbidding popish recusants convicted of not going to church from moving above 5 miles from their usual place of abode.

The Gentleman's Magazine
The Gentleman's
Magazine was the first magazine produced. It was a monthly publication founded in 1731 by Edward Cave and survived in its original form until 1868. It contained historical and biographical articles.

The Great Fire Of London
The Great
Fire Of London broke out in Pudding Lane, near London Bridge on September 2nd 1666 and raged until September 6th destroying London from the Tower to the Temple and from the Thames to Smithfield.

The Spectator
The Spectator was a journal founded in 1711 by
Sir Richard Steele and contributed to largely by Addison. It lapsed in 1714 but the title was resuscitated in 1828 by Robert Rintoul. At first the journal was non-political, then during the 19th century it adopted Liberal tendencies.

The Test Act
The Test Act of 1673 decreed that all who held public offices in
England must receive the Church of England sacrament and renounce Transubstantiation. It thus excluded Nonconformists and Roman Catholics. The act was repealed in May 1828.

The Tropics
The Tropics are the region between 23 degrees 30 minutes north and 23 degrees 30 minutes south of the equator at which the
sun's rays are vertical at noon.

Theine is an alternative name for

Theobromine (dimethyl-xanthine) is the active principal of the cacao or
cocoa bean. It is a crystalline powder with a bitter taste closely resembling caffeine and sometimes used as a diuretic.

A theodolite is an instrument used in
surveying for measuring horizontal and vertical angles.

Theology is a science dealing with ascertainable truths about God and his relations with the world and mankind.

Theosophy is an intuitive or ecstatic mode of enunciating doctrines.

A thermion is an electrically charged particle emitted from a heated body.

Thermionics is a branch of physics dealing with the emission of ions by hot bodies. The first thermionic observation, though not understood at the time, was made by
Edison, and is known as the Edison effect.

A thermistor is a type of semi-conductor in which the resistance decreases as the temperature rises.

Thermit is a mixture of coarsely powdered
aluminium and magnetic oxide of iron which when ignited reacts by producing iron and aluminium oxide at an intensely high temperature approaching 3000 degrees Celsius. It was developed for making welding repairs in situ, and adopted by the army for use in incendiary bombs.

Thermite Process
Thermite Process (Goldschmidt Process) is the method of obtaining liquid metal by reduction of the oxide with aluminium powder.

Thermo-Chemistry is the branch of physical
chemistry which deals with the relationship between chemical energy and heat.

Thermo-Electricity is the phenomena of electricity being produced when a
circuit of two different metals is heated, and heat is produced when electrical current is passed through a circuit of two different metals.

Thermodynamics is a science dealing with the relationship between heat and work.

A thermograph is a device for recording fluctuations in
air temperature.

A thermometer is a device used to measure temperature.

A thermostat is a device which automatically maintains temperature at a
constant value or gives notice of an undue change in temperature.

Thermotaxis is the
physiology term for the regulation of an organisms body heat.

A thespian is an
actor or actress.

Theurgy was a system of magic practised by the Neoplatonists intended to procure communication with spirits for personal benefit and to produce miraculous effects with their assistance.

Thiamine is
vitamin b1 a deficiency of which causes beri beri.

The thiazines are compounds containing a ring of one
nitrogen, one sulphur, and four carbon atoms.

A thicket is a dense
growth of shrubs, bushes or small trees forming a thick coppice.

see "

The thigh is the upper part of the
human leg between the knee and the hip.

Thigh bone
Thigh bone is a popular name for the femur.

A thio-derivative is a
compound in which sulphur has replaced an equivalent amount of oxygen, such as potassium thio-cyanate, KCNS, in which the sulphur has replaced the oxygen in potassium cyanate, KCNO.

see "

Thiophene is a colourless, volatile liquid closely resembling
benzene. It occurs in coal-tar and is extracted by shaking with concentrated sulphuric acid. Thiophene is a parent substance of a number of derivatives.

A thole is a pin in the gunwale of a
boat used as a fulcrum for an oar. There are usually two tholes between which the oar rests.

Thomas cup
The Thomas cup is a
badminton tournament.

Thomism is a system of
theology and philosophy taught by St. Thomas Aquinas.

A thong is a narrow strip of
leather used as a lace or strap.

Thorium is
radioactive metal element with the symbol Th.

Threshing is an agricultural term for separating the
grain from the ear or the seeds from the pods of various crops.

In architecture, a threshold is a piece of
stone or timber lying below the bottom of a doorway.

Thulium is a metal
element with the symbol Tm.

Thunder is a
loud noise which accompanies lightning, but appears to follow it due to the difference at which sound and light travel. Thunder is the noise which occurs due to the sudden violent disturbance of the air by the electrical discharge.

A thurible is a censer or vessel in which aromatic spices are burned.

Thursday is the fourth
day of the week.

A thwart is a seat across a
boat on which the rower sits.

Thymol is a white crystalline
phenol obtained from the oil of thyme. It has a pleasant aromatic smell and is used as an antiseptic.

Thyroxin is a white crystalline substance which is secreted by the
thyroid gland.

Thyroxine is a
hormone which is the active principle of the thyroid gland.

A tiara was an ancient Persian head-dress. It is also the name of a jewelled
coronet worn by women.

A tic is an habitual, local spasmodic contraction of muscles or twitch, often in the face.

Tide is a term applied to the alternate rising and falling of the sea, twice in each lunar
day, to the attraction of the moon and the sun.

A tiki is a
Maori large wooden or small ornamental greenstone image of the creator of man or an ancestor.

A tilbury was a
light open two-wheeled carriage which was fashionable during the first half of the 19th century.

A timbale is a dish of minced meat, or
fish cooked in a drum-shaped mould of pastry.

Timber is wood prepared for building, or
trees which provide wood suitable for building with.

Timber hitch
The timber hitch is a

A timbrel was a type of
tambourine used around biblical times.

Timology is a philosophical term of a doctrine of values.

Timolol maleate
Timolol maleate is a beta blocker used in the treatment of angina, hypertension and glaucoma.

Tin is a white metal
element with the symbol Sn. It occurs commonly in the ore cassiterite, which is found in Malaya, Indonesia, Bolivia, Zaire, Nigeria and Cornwall. Tin is often used to plate iron to protect it from rusting.

Tin-plate is thin sheet
iron or steel coated with pure metallic tin. Iron and steel are coated with tin to prevent rusting.

Tincal is a crude form of
borax found in lake-deposits in parts of Asia.

A tine is a projecting sharp point such as of a
fork, harrow or stag's antler.

A tinker is a person who mends things, the term especially applies to someone who mends
pots, pans and kettles. In Scotland and Northern Ireland the term is often applied to Romanys.

Tinnitus is the medical condition of noises in the
ear which are not due to external sounds. It is a condition common amongst the deaf and hard of hearing.

Tinplate is
steel covered in tin.

Tinsel is a shining metallic material used in thin strips or threads to give a sparkling effect in decorations.

A tintack is a short
nail made of tin plated iron or steel.

A tippet was a woman's small cape or collar made of fur, or
silk usually with two ends hanging down in front.

A tipstaff is a metal-tipped staff which is a
symbol of a Sheriff's office.

Tironian system
The Tironian system was a
Roman system of shorthand which was still in use in England during the mediaeval times.

In biological terms, tissue is an organised
mass of cells, such as any part of an animal's body or a plant's structure.

see "

The Titanic was a supposedly unsinkable British
ocean liner. She was a White Star liner, and the largest ship of her time. On her maiden voyage from Queenstown to New York she struck an iceberg near Cape Race (14th April, 1912) and sank. The Carpathia arrived in time to save 712 of the 2201 persons on board. As a result of the inquiry which followed new regulations concerning life-saving appliances on ships were made.

Titanium is a metal
element with the symbol Ti.

see "

Titration is the analysis or determination of the concentration of a
solution by adding measured amounts of a standard solution of a suitable reagent until the chemical reaction between the two solutions is completed.

A toboggan is a hand-sleigh used for sliding down
snow or ice slopes.

A toby is a mug or small jug used for
ale. They are made in various forms, but originally they were in the form of a stout man wearing a long full-skirted coat and a three-cornered hat.

Toddy is a drink made from the fresh or fermented
sap of various species of palm.

Toffee is a sweet of
sugar, butter and flavourings boiled together and then allowed to cool and harden.

A toga was an outer garment worn by citizens of ancient
Rome. It was a flowing cloak covering the entire body except the right arm.

Tokay is a
rich sweet aromatic wine made near Tokay in Hungary.

Toleration Act
The toleration act of parliament in 1689 gave the right to
freedom of worship in England.

A toll is a tax or duty chargeable for selling goods, setting up a stall, or travelling along a public road, bridge or
ferry or for transporting goods by railway.

Toluene (methyl-benzene) is a colourless liquid derived from
petroleum and coal-tar.

Toluidine (Methyl-aniline) is a substance prepared from

A tom-tom is a native east Indian drum usually beaten with the hands.

The ton is a unit of measurement of the
avoirdupois scale equivalent to 20 hundredweight, 2240 pounds or 1.016 tonnes.

A tondo is a painting or carving in relief within a circular shape.

A tong is a Chinese association. The term is especially applied to Chinese secret organisations.

Tonic Sol-fa
Sol-fa is a system of musical notation dating back to 1812 when it was developed by a Miss Glover of Norwich to teach music to children who were having difficulty with learning.

Tonite is an explosive formed by mixing
barium nitrate with gun-cotton.

Tonka Bean
tonka bean is the fruit of a Guiana shrub, used in perfumery.

Tonnage was a duty on
wine first imposed in 1346 and abolished in 1787.

Tonsillitis is the inflammation of the

Tonsure is the religious practice of having the head shaved before entering the priesthood or becoming a

Tontine is a system of life assurance and purchasing property in which the advantage lies with the longest-lived of a stated number of individuals, who may either receive absolutely the
gross amount of the capital contributed by all the subscribers who have predeceased him, or only the interest upon the sum. The idea was first put forward by an Italian banker, Lorenzo Tonti, in 1653 and was first put into practice by Louis XIV in 1689.

A topee is a
light pith helmet.

Topiary is the art of clipping and trimming shrubs into ornamental designs.

Topology is a branch of mathematics which studies geometric objects from the point of view of their general shape rather than their precise measurements.

Toponymy is the study of a region's place names.

A toque is a small brimless hat made of folded or swathed material.

A tor is a craggy or
rocky hill or peak. The term is most used in Cornwall and Devon.

Torchon is a strong, coarse linen bobbin-lace.

A toreador is a mounted bullfighter.

Torero is the term used for someone who fights bulls for a living.

A tornado is a violent
storm with heavy rain in which the wind rotates or constantly changes direction.

A torque was a necklace or collar of twisted metal worn by ancient Britons and Gauls.

In building, a torsel is a block of
stone or piece of wood or iron set in a wall to support a beam or joist.

Torsion Balance
A torsion balance is an instrument which was invented by Coulomb for measuring electric and magnetic attraction. A fine
silver wire supports, at its centre of gravity, a horizontal carrier with bodies of known electric charge at each end, or a magnet of known strength. The deflection of the carrier determines the strength of the attractive force when the source of attraction is placed at a known distance from it.

A torso is a statue or mutilated
human body lacking a head and limbs.

Tort is an
English legal term for a civil wrong which violates a general duty and not merely a breach of contract arising out of a particular relationship between the parties. But a tort may also be a breach of contract and a crime. It may relate either to persons or to property.

Torticollis is a rheumatic or other affection of the muscles causing twisting and stiffness of the

A tortilla is a
Latin American thin flat cake made of maize flour and baked on a flat piece of stone or iron.

In architecture, a torus is a large convex moulding, usually at the base of a

Totem is an
Ojibway word describing an animal or plant related to an individual by totemism.

Totemism is a widespread belief amongst primitive peoples of blood-kinship or association with an
animal or plant. For example, an individual may have the bison as his totem.

A toupee was originally a top-knot of hair crowning a
wig. Today the term is used to describe any false hair piece.

A tournament was an equestrian contest between military knights and others armed with lances which were common in the
Middle Ages. They were introduced to England by the Normans.

A tournedos is a small piece of
fillet beef grilled or sauteed.

A tourniquet is a bandage for stopping the flow of
blood through an artery.

A tower is a tall structure.

Tower of Babel
see "

Tower of London
Tower of London was built as a fortress by William The Conqueror. It was a royal palace in the Middle Ages, and was later used as a garrison and prison. The Crown Jewels are kept at the Tower of London.

Toxaemia is
blood poisoning.

Something is said to be toxic (poisonous) if when introduced into a living organism it destroys it or damages its health.

Toxicology is the study of nature and effects of poisons and their detection and treatment.

Toxin refers to a
toxic substance of animal or vegetable origin.

A toxophilite is someone who is learning archery.

Toxophily is the practice of, or addiction to archery.

Tracheid is the
water conducting component in the wood of vascular plants.

Tracheotomy is the cutting and insertion of a
pipe into the trachea. It is used in such cases as the trachea is blocked so that the patient may breath.

Trachoma is a contagious form of conjunctivitis with inflammation of the inner surface of the eyelids. It frequently leads to blindness.

A tract is a short argumentative treatise. It was a type of literature employed and developed by

Tractarian Movement
The Tractarian Movement was a literary movement started in the 19th century by
Newman, Keble and Pusey.

A tractor is a power-driven machine adapted to haul other machines or vehicles over roads or rough ground.

Tractory is the curve in which a heavy particle moves when dragged at the end of an inextensible string by a body moving in a straight line.

Trade is the general name given to the process of exchanging commodities either for other commodities, which is called barter, or for money, which in more advanced communities serves as a medium of exchange.

Trade Mark
trade mark is a mark used in connection with goods to indicate that they are the goods of a particular proprietor.

Trade Union
trade union is an organisation consisting of a combination of wage-earners engaged in the same industry or trade, usually to provide negotiating power with the employer and as a mutual self-help group for employees when they need financial assistance or legal assistance connected with their employment.

Trade Wind
Trade Winds are winds which blow a steady course. The trade wind north of the equator blows almost constantly from the north-east, while the prevailing direction of the trade wind south of the equator is south-east.

Trade Winds
Trade Winds are the winds permanently blowing from the tropics towards the equator.

Tragacanth is a kind of gum derived from the Asiatic
leguminous plants of the Astragalus genus. It is used in calico printing, pills and lozenges.

Tragacanth gum
Tragacanth gum is a partly water-soluble gum exuded by the tree Astragalus verus and used as an adhesive and in medicine for the preparation of emulsions.

In the theatre, a tragedy is a play dealing with a serious theme.

A tram is a passenger vehicle, similar to a bus, which runs along rails on public roads. The rails are flush with the road's surface allowing other motor vehicles to also use the roads at the same time.

A trammel is a fishing net consisting of a fine net hung loosely between vertical walls of a coarser net so that
fish passing through the coarse net carry some of the finer net through with them and are caught in the resulting pocket.

The tramontano is a
cool northerly wind felt along the shores of the Adriatic.

A trampoline is a canvas sheet attached to a horizontal metal framework by
springs to provide a resilient platform for acrobats.

A transducer is a device which takes in power from one part of a system and emits power of a different kind to another part.

Transepts are the
cross aisles of a church, projecting at right angles from the nave or choir.

A transformer is a device used for converting an alternating electric current from one voltage to another, depending upon electro-magnetic induction. The first transformer was made by Faraday in 1831.

A transistor is an electronic component made of a
semiconductor material and three or more electrodes.

Transmutation is a biological term whereby one
species transforms into another through an evolutionary process.

A transom is a
cross bar separating a door from the fan light above it.

Transportation was the British policy of sending convicts abroad. It started following the American War Of Independance, and commenced with convicts being sent to
Australia with a view to colonising the country. However, the colonial government there complained and convicts were from 1840 sent to Van Diemen's Land (Tasmania). The system was abolished in 1853 in favour of penal servitude.

Transuranic is a chemical term referring to artificially manufactured
elements which have an atomic number higher than uranium.

A transvestite is a person who dresses in the clothes of the opposite sex.

A trapeze is a horizontal
bar suspended by two ropes and used as a piece of apparatus by acrobats.

A trapezoid is a quadrilateral shape in which none of the sides are parallel.

Traumatic gangrene
see "

A trawler is a fishing
ship which catches fish by trawling, that is with a net dragged along the bottom of the sea.

Trawling is the process of dragging the sea-bottom for
fish by a flat conical shaped net.

Treacle is an uncrystallised syrup produced when
sugar is refined.

A treadle is a foot operated lever used to impart motion to a machine, such as a sewing machine or
lathe for example.

A treadmill is a
mill consisting of a large wooden cylinder with steps on the outside. It is worked by persons treading on the steps, their weight causing the cylinder to revolve. The treadmill was introduced into England at the beginning of the 19th century and was used in prisons for disciplinary purposes, but fell into disuse towards the end of the century.

Treason is the breach of the duty of allegiance owed by a subject to the
State and its sovereign.

Treason Act
Treason Act was passed in 1534 by Henry VIII making it high treason to question the King's title or imagine or practise any harm to him.

Treasure-trove is a legal term for coins,
gold and silver articles found buried in the earth or secreted in other places for which no owner can be found. In England, treasure-trove belongs to the crown, and to conceal it is punishable with a fine or imprisonment.

Treaty of Dardanelles
The Treaty of
Dardanelles was signed in 1841 between England, France, Russia and Turkey and confirmed the convention of 1840, limiting Mehemet Ali to Egypt and Acre, and closing the Dardanelles to all ships of war unless with the consent of the Sultan.

Treaty of Trianon
The Treaty of Trianon took place on June 4th 1920 between the
Allies and Hungary at the end of the Great War. By the treaty Hungary was considerably reduced in size, and lost about 3 million Magyars.

A trellis is a structure of
light bars crossing each other with open squares or diamond-shaped spaces between them. Trellis are used as screens and to support climbing plants.

A trencher is a flat slab of wood or metal upon which meat is cut.

In the
Roman Catholic church, trental is a set of 30 requiem masses said daily or all on one day.

A trepan was a surgeon's cylindrical

A trephine is a surgeon's cylindrical
saw with a guiding centre pin used for removing part of the bone of the skull. The trephine has taken over from the trepan.

Trews were close-fitting trousers or breeches combined with stockings worn by Scottish highlanders and the

A triac is a bi-directional thyristor used in A.C. control circuitry.

A triad is a Chinese secret society. Originally a Buddhist cult they are now crime organisation.

Triamterene is an antihypertensive and
diuretic drug used to reduce fluid retention (edema) and
reduce potassium loss. It works by increasing urine production to eliminate sodium and water from
the body while conserving potassium.

Triangulation is a technique employed in
surveying. A base-line is set out in a convenient and level situation and measured with great accuracy. A theodolite is then set up at each end of the base-line, and readings are taken on some prominent point or beacon, giving the angular displacement of the beacon relative to the base-line. A triangle is thus formed, of which the size of the angles and the length of one side are known, and therefore the length of the remaining sides may be calculated.

The Triassic was the ninth geological period, 170,000,000 years ago.

Tribology is the study of friction, wear, lubrication and bearing design.

A tribune was an ancient
Roman administrative officer.

Trichinosis is a disease caused by the parasitic
worm Trichina spiralis, conveyed to man by eating under-cooked pork.

Trichology is the study of the structure, functions and diseases of hair.

A tricorn is a three-cornered cocked hat.

A tricycle is a three-wheeled vehicle, comparable in design with the
bicycle, and like it propelled by pedals geared by means of a chain to the rear axle.

In The
Roman Catholic religion, a triduum is three days of prayer in preparation for a feast or other solemn occasion.

Triennial Act
The Triennial Act was passed in 1641 to ensure that Parliament should meet at least every 3 years. It was repealed in 1664 and replaced in 1694 by another enacting that no Parliament should sit for more than 3 years without a general election.

Trifle is a sweet dish of sponge-cakes flavoured with
wine or jam and topped with custard and whipped cream.

A triglyph is a three-grooved tablet repeated at regular intervals in a Doric frieze, the intervening spaces being filled with metopes.

Trigonometry is the branch of mathematics which treats of the relation of the sides and angles of triangles, with the methods of deducing from certain parts the parts required.

Trihydroxy-benzoic Acid
see "
Gallic Acid"

A trilby is a soft
felt hat with a narrow brim and an indented crown.

A trimaran is a
boat similar to a catamaran, but with 3 hulls side by side.

chemistry, a trinitrate is a compound formed from 3 molecules of nitric acid by the replacement of the 3 hydrogen atoms by a trivalent element or radicle.

Trinitrotoluene (
TNT) is a high explosive.

Trinity House
Trinity House was founded at Deptford, Kent and received a royal charter in 1514. It was composed of skilled mariners, and had charge of the naval dockyard under Henry VIII. Under Elizabeth I it began its work of lighting the coasts of England. Today it is responsible for light houses, buoys etc.

A triode is an electronic amplifying
valve with 3 main electrodes (anode, cathode and grid).

A triolet is a poem of fixed form consisting of an 8-line stanza rhymed upon two rhymes in the manner ABAAABAB. The fourth line is a repetition of the first and the seventh and eight of the first two. Triolets originated in mediaeval

chemistry, a trioxide is a compound with 3 atoms of oxygen with an element or radical.

Tripe is the culinary term for a
ruminant's stomach.

Tritium is an unstable
isotope of hydrogen.

A trocar is a surgical stylet with a triangular point enclosed in a metal tube and used for withdrawing fluid from a cavity.

The trombone is a musical instrument of the brass family. Sounds of different
pitch are achieved by lengthening and shortening the tube.

Trona is a naturally occurring hydrous
sodium carbonate found in north Africa and America.

Tropacocaine is a local anaesthetic obtained from
coca leaves grown in Java.

Tropism is a biological term for the
behaviour of animals and plants with respect to light or other stimuli.

The troposphere is the layers of the
atmosphere in which, up to a certain height, the temperature falls with increasing altitude.

In building, a trowel is a flat bladed
tool with a short handle used for spreading mortar. A gardener's trowel is a scoop shaped tool with a short handle.

Truck Acts
The Truck
Acts of 1831, 1887 and 1896 made it illegal in Britain for an employer to pay his workmen other than in the current coin.

A trug is a
shallow garden basket made of wooden strips and with a handle extending from side to side.

The trumpet is a musical instrument of the brass family. The trumpet is the earliest known
brass wind instrument, and consists of a tube of about 1.5 meters long curved twice to form three lengths. One end widens into a bell and the other end is mounted with a cupped mouthpiece. The pitch of notes is altered by way of key operated valves.

Tryptophan is a crystalline amino-acid formed in triptych
digestion. Its presence in food is essential for an animal's proper growth.

A tsunami is a seismic sea wave originating from any one of several
submarine geological phenomena, such as volcanic explosions. They travel in the open ocean at speeds up to 640 kmph.

The tuba is a musical instrument of the brass family.

A tuber is a thickened, fleshy or scaly portion of a
plant's underground stem which serves as a store-house for starch and other plant food.

Tuberculosis (TB) is a highly infectious disease in humans and
animals caused by the bacteria tubercule bacillus and characterised by the formation of tubercles in bodily tissues, especially the lungs.

Tuesday is the second
day of the week.

A tug is a
boat used for towing other ships.

A tumbrel is a type of
cart, formerly used for carrying dung and prisoners to the guillotine during the French Revolution.

Tungsten is a metal
element with the symbol W.

A tunic was an ancient
Greek and then Roman short-sleeved body garment reaching to the knees. Today the term applies more generally to a close-fitting short coat of a police or military uniform.

A tuning-fork is a small percussion instrument of definite and permanent
pitch, which is used to indicate the correct pitch of some particular note in the musical scale. It consists of two vibrating steel prongs, which spring from a tapered base.

A tunnel is an underground passageway.

The tupenu is a wrap round, skirt like cloth worn by Tongan males for all formal occasions.
The tupenu is the normal work attire and is also worn to church. It is
ideal for the Tongan climate.

A turbine is a type of engine.
Steam turbines often propel ships and power stations. Gas turbines are also used.

Turnbull's Blue
Blue is a pigment produced by the action of a ferrous salt on potassium ferri-cyanide.

Turpentine is the
resinous exudation of various coniferous plants.

Tutenag is an
alloy of copper, nickel and zinc used at one time for domesticware and fire-grates.

A tutu is a dancer's short skirt made of layers of stiffened frills.

A tuxedo is a man's evening dress or dinner-jacket.

A tweezer is a small pair of tongs used for picking up small objects.

Twelve Tables
The Twelve Tables was the original
Roman code of law drawn up around 450 BC by a body of 10 Decemviri. It was written in ancient Latin on copper tablets and was set up in the forum of Rome.

Twilight is a faint illumination of the
earth by sunlight reflected from the atmosphere after sunset and before sunrise.

Twill is a
textile fabric with a surface of parallel diagonal ribs produced by passing weft-threads over one and under two or more warp-threads.

Twins is the name applied for two
human bodies produced at a birth. Twins may be identical which often occurs as a result of a single ovum, or different in the case of multiple ova being fertilised.

Tympanum is an archaeological term for the space at the back of a pediment.

Tyndall Effect
Tyndall Effect is the scattering of light by fine suspended particles. If a beam of white light is passed through a colloidal suspension of a substance such as mastic in water, light will be emitted at right angles to the beam.

Tynwald is the parliament in the
isle of man.

The typewriter is a machine for printing letters singly on paper which is traversed and moved forward so as to allow writing to be performed. The first patent for a typewriter was filed in 1714 by Henry Milne.

A typhon is a naval signal horn operated by compressed
air or steam. It is so named after the mythical Typhon.

A typhoon is a tropical
cyclone or hurricane of the western Pacific and China Sea.

Typhus is an acute contagious fever transmitted to man by body-lice and rat-fleas infected by Rickettsia prowazekii. Typhus is characterised by the eruption of rose-coloured spots, extreme prostration and often delirium.

Typography is the art of composing the layout and appearance of printed work, including the selection of typefaces, line spacing, word spacing and the positioning of illustrations. In recent times the term has largely been replaced with "publishing".

Tyrian dye
dye was a purple dye derived from animal juice in the shell-fish murex. It was used in ancient times. Since only small quantities could be obtained, it's use was limited to the great and the wealthy, hence purple became the colour associated with majesty.